List Of Educational Theorists And Their Theories About Interest PdfBy Cesira G. In and pdf 15.05.2021 at 00:39 9 min read
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Education theory is the theory of the purpose, application and interpretation of education and learning. It largely an umbrella term, being comprised of a number of theories, rather than a single explanation of how we learn, and how we should teach.
- The Five Educational Learning Theories
- Teaching and Learning Theories
- Introduction to Educational Psychology Theory
- Learning theory (education)
The Five Educational Learning Theories
January 22, Staff Writers. Educational psychologists study learners and learning contexts — both within and beyond traditional classrooms — and evaluate ways in which factors such as age, culture, gender, and physical and social environments influence human learning. They leverage educational theory and practice based on the latest research related to human development to understand the emotional, cognitive, and social aspects of human learning. Educational psychology can influence programs, curricula, and lesson development, as well as classroom management approaches.
In addition, educational psychologists play an important role in educating teachers, parents, and administrators about best practices for learners who struggle with conventional education methods.
However, educational psychologists can also pursue careers as researchers, consultants, and teachers in a variety of contexts, including schools, community organizations, government research centers, and learning centers. Although the discipline of educational psychology includes numerous theories, many experts identify five main schools of thought: behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, experientialism, and social contextual learning theories.
The following overview summarizes these five major theory groups and outlines the key theorists, definition, history, principles, and applications for each. Behaviorist learning theories first emerged in the late 19th century from the work of Edward Thorndike and Ivan Pavlov. They were popularized during the first half of the 20th century through the work of John B. Watson, B. Skinner, and others. Behaviorism defines learning as observable behavioral change that occurs in response to environmental stimuli.
Through this process of conditioning, people learn to either repeat or avoid behaviors. Because early behaviorists tried to legitimize psychology as a science, their theories emphasized external, scientifically measurable behavioral changes in response to similarly measurable stimuli.
Assuming that changes in behavior signify learning, methodological behaviorists see no fundamental difference between human and animal learning processes, and they often conduct comparative research on animals. Behaviorism relies on the prediction or analysis of behavior based on causal stimuli, while education uses the process of positive and negative reinforcement to encourage or discourage behaviors. Behaviorist learning theory distinguishes between classical and operative conditioning. The former involves natural responses to environmental stimuli, while the latter involves the reinforcement of a response to stimuli.
Behaviorist theories ascribe to a reductionist approach, which dictates that breaking behavior down into parts is the best way to understand it. Other schools of thought critique behaviorism for underemphasizing biological and unconscious factors, denying free will, equating humans with animals, and overlooking internal learning processes or types of learning that occur without reinforcement.
Behaviorism has significantly shaped the disciplines of psychology and education, illuminating major influencing factors in human behavior and learning.
In psychology, both behavior modification and behavior therapy owe their origins to behaviorism. Meanwhile, behaviorist insights underlie many of the teaching methods still used today in homes, classrooms, workplaces, and other contexts. The widespread use of learning objectives, for example, breaks down larger learning goals into a series of specific skills and behaviors desired from a student.
Behaviorism also influences the sequence and methods used during the teaching and learning process. Teachers work toward their desired objectives by using external stimuli, explaining and demonstrating a skill or behavior, and then inviting student practice and providing feedback that reinforces the behaviors or skills they wish students to learn or unlearn.
Cognitive psychology emerged in the s and became dominant in the s. Departing from the comparative emphasis of behaviorists, cognitivists see human beings as rational creatures quite different from animals. Consequently, cognitive theory explores the complexities of the human mind as it processes information.
Using the computer as a metaphor for the human mind, cognitivists see learning as a product of mental faculties and activities, including thought, knowledge, memory, motivation, reflection, and problem-solving.
Recasting learning as the acquisition of knowledge and the development of understanding, this approach emphasizes reading and lecture as learning modalities. Cognitive psychology understands knowledge acquisition schematically and symbolically. In this view, human behavior reflects internal processing of the human mind, rather than simply a conditioned response to external stimuli.
Learning involves the integration of information into a stored and usable body of knowledge. Learning capacity and activity change over time as a person moves through life.
For example, although older people have accumulated more knowledge, they do not always remain as teachable due to their tendency to adopt a more fixed outlook over time.
The setup of many learning experiences today reflects persistent cognitivist ideas, approaches, and assumptions. Although many contemporary educational psychologists see cognitivist approaches as outdated, teachers often deliver lectures in front of a classroom and expect students to demonstrate their retention of content through information-oriented tests. Self-reflection — a widely used cognitivist technique — helps students think about and transform their understanding of the subject at hand.
Constructivism gained notoriety in the ss and enjoyed a resurgence in the ss. This view challenges both the behaviorist notion of the learner as a blank slate and the cognitivist notion of learning as the acquisition of objective information from an expert. Rather, this school of thought suggests that learners create their own subjective information by interpreting their world and restructuring their thinking.
Constructivists agree that learners create knowledge rather than passively receiving it, and that preexisting knowledge plays a crucial role in their learning. However, two differing strands of constructivism bear mentioning. While late 20th century cognitivist theories tend to reduce a learner to a passive receptacle, social constructivism believes learners actively hypothesize about their environment and test these hypotheses through social negotiations. Cognitive constructivism agrees that learners construct rather than receive information, but it is interested in the cognitive processing involved in knowledge construction.
Constructivism influences the lesson plan methodologies employed by many teachers today. For example, constructivist influence shapes the common teaching practice of posing questions or problems and then inviting students to answer and solve them in their own ways. Constructivism is also evident in popular classroom practices, such as having students create their own questions, welcoming multiple points of view and intelligence styles, and using group work as a collaborative learning tool.
This school of thought emerged in the s out of the influence of the learner-centered and interactive foci of constructivism and social learning theories. Rogers posits that humans are more likely to learn and retain information when they participate actively in the learning process. Experientialist David A. Kolb identifies four stages in this learning process: experiencing, absorbing and reflecting on experience, conceptualizing experience, and testing concepts in other situations.
These are cyclical stages that function as an ongoing feedback loop, which in turn allows learners to improve skills and apply new or recent knowledge. Rejecting all didactic approaches, experientialism argues that one person cannot effectively impart knowledge directly to another person; people must learn for themselves.
A teacher can facilitate the learning process by engaging students through an experience, but they cannot control exactly what students learn from that experience. Experientialists argue that learners become less flexible and receptive when they are afraid; as a result, this view encourages teachers to create non-threatening learning environments in which learners can experience and experiment freely.
The experientialist understanding of the learning process as a dynamic feedback loop often shapes how educators plan their lessons. Experientialism also shapes theories of organizational learning, including workplace design and professional training. Such programming often introduces realistic problems or scenarios where professionals practice new skills to generate a constructive solution.
Individuals may also work collaboratively and receive feedback from their peers and instructors. Many schools incorporate experiential education as a formal component in their programs and curricula. In K schools, these experiences often take the form of field trips or projects. Meanwhile, colleges offer undergraduates internships and study abroad programs, and graduate schools often incorporate practicum experiences that allow students to apply what they have learned in other courses.
First emerging in the late 20th century, social and contextual learning theories challenge the individual-focused approaches evident in both constructivism and cognitivism. In this view, cognition and learning are understood as interactions between the individual and a situation; knowledge is situated in — and a product of — the activity, context, and culture in which it is developed and used.
Social learning theory pays particular attention to social and interactive aspects of learning. Albert Bandura, for example, emphasizes the roles that social observation and modeling play in learning, while Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger posit that learning works best in a community of practice that produces social capital that improves the health of the community and its members.
The situated, relational nature of knowledge and the social, engaged nature of effective learning are the foundational principles of social and contextual learning theories. Bandura posits a reciprocal determinism between environment, personality, and behavior, arguing that these factors influence one another while also shaping learning situations. Emphasizing learner attention, motivation, and memory, Bandura encourages educators to use natural tendencies toward observation, modeling, and imitation when designing learning situations.
Lave and Wenger, on the other hand, view the diversity in knowledge levels as the best asset to a community of practice. Thomas Sergiovanni seconds this view, arguing that schools and other communities need to shift toward this approach before they can see substantial improvement. As a result, teachers account for the demographics of their classrooms as much as they do lesson planning.
While educators used to expect learners to make connections on their own, teachers now achieve more successful learning outcomes when they create learning environments that facilitate this process. Many teachers try to incorporate multifaceted, experiential learning environments that assist students in forging meaningful connections between abstract and practical concepts.
Explanations and illustrations of reasons for a lesson typically improve student motivation, helping students visualize or actually practice using this knowledge in practical contexts. Explore Educational Psychology Degrees. Explore Careers in Educational Psychology. Are you looking for colleges with psychology majors? This page includes the best colleges for psychology in the country. Online psychology degrees are versatile programs, preparing students for a range of careers.
This page offers a list of the best online schools for psychology. Prospective college students researching academic programs should consider our ranked lists of schools. To create our rankings, we've developed a methodology by compiling relevant indicators from national databases about postsecondary Advertisement Psychology. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us.
This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site. Collapse All Expand All. Watson, and B. Skinner Definition and Background Behaviorist learning theories first emerged in the late 19th century from the work of Edward Thorndike and Ivan Pavlov.
Key Principle s Behaviorism relies on the prediction or analysis of behavior based on causal stimuli, while education uses the process of positive and negative reinforcement to encourage or discourage behaviors. Application Behaviorism has significantly shaped the disciplines of psychology and education, illuminating major influencing factors in human behavior and learning.
Definition and Background Cognitive psychology emerged in the s and became dominant in the s. Key Principle s Cognitive psychology understands knowledge acquisition schematically and symbolically. Application The setup of many learning experiences today reflects persistent cognitivist ideas, approaches, and assumptions. Key Principle s Constructivists agree that learners create knowledge rather than passively receiving it, and that preexisting knowledge plays a crucial role in their learning.
Application Constructivism influences the lesson plan methodologies employed by many teachers today.
Teaching and Learning Theories
January 22, Staff Writers. Educational psychologists study learners and learning contexts — both within and beyond traditional classrooms — and evaluate ways in which factors such as age, culture, gender, and physical and social environments influence human learning. They leverage educational theory and practice based on the latest research related to human development to understand the emotional, cognitive, and social aspects of human learning. Educational psychology can influence programs, curricula, and lesson development, as well as classroom management approaches. In addition, educational psychologists play an important role in educating teachers, parents, and administrators about best practices for learners who struggle with conventional education methods. However, educational psychologists can also pursue careers as researchers, consultants, and teachers in a variety of contexts, including schools, community organizations, government research centers, and learning centers.
"Skinner box," a tool to demonstrate his theory that rewarded behavior is from rethinkingafricancollections.org~eushe2/Bandura/rethinkingafricancollections.org ZPD so as to maintain the student interest in the activity. heavily dependent on verbal instruction-may not be equally useful in all cultures for all types of learning.
Introduction to Educational Psychology Theory
Below, you will find a brief outline of each educational learning theory, along with links to resources that may be helpful. Behaviorism is a view in which behavior can be explained by external factors and behavioral conditioning can be used as a universal learning process. In behaviorism, the ideas of positive and negative reinforcement are effective tools of learning and behavior modification, as well as a punishment and reward system. Cognitivism is a learning theory developed by Jean Piaget in which a child develops cognitive pathways in understanding and physical response to experiences. In this theory, students learn most effectively through reading text and lecture instruction.
Learning theory describes how students receive, process, and retain knowledge during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained. Behaviorists look at learning as an aspect of conditioning and advocate a system of rewards and targets in education. Educators who embrace cognitive theory believe that the definition of learning as a change in behaviour is too narrow, and study the learner rather than their environment—and in particular the complexities of human memory. Those who advocate constructivism believe that a learner's ability to learn relies largely on what they already know and understand, and the acquisition of knowledge should be an individually tailored process of construction.
Table of Contents Distance Education PDF. The development of new technologies has promoted an astounding growth in distance education, both in the number of students enrolling and in the number of universities adding education at a distance to their curriculum Garrison, While the application of modem technology may glamorize distance education, literature in the field reveals a conceptually fragmented framework lacking in both theoretical foundation and programmatic research.
According to SDT learners have a natural tendency to explore their environments, to grow, learn and develop. An important goal of education then is to cultivate this inherent interest that exists within the learner. Yet, in reality, many teachers are in a daily struggle to energize and motivate learners who lack enthusiasm, are passive, refuse to cooperate, or even display aggressive or disruptive behaviors.
Learning theory (education)
So what are educational learning theories and how can we use them in our teaching practice? There are so many out there, how do we know which are still relevant and which will work for our classes? In this article you will find a breakdown of each one and an explanation of the 15 most influential learning theories; from Vygotsky to Piaget and Bloom to Maslow and Bruner. By Paul Stevens-Fulbrook.
С этим Танкадо сумел примириться. Но он не смог примириться с тем, что этот взрыв лишил его возможности познакомиться с собственной матерью. Произведя его на свет, она умерла из-за осложнений, вызванных радиационным поражением, от которого страдала многие годы. В 1945 году, когда Энсей еще не родился, его мать вместе с другими добровольцами поехала в Хиросиму, где работала в одном из ожоговых центров. Там она и стала тем, кого японцы именуют хибакуся - человеком, подвергшимся облучению.
В ужасе от того, что ее ожидало, она направилась к кабинету шефа. Когда Сьюзан уже сделала несколько шагов, что-то вдруг показалось ей странным. Она остановилась и снова начала вглядываться в глубь помещения Третьего узла. В полумраке ей удалось различить руку Хейла. Но она не была прижата к боку, как раньше, и его тело уже не опутывали веревки. Теперь рука была закинута за голову, следовательно, Хейл лежал на спине.
CLICK HERE to Get this Guide to learning theories as a PDF 5 Types of Questions in the Classroom We Should be Asking More. His theory of learning differs from many others in some important ways: Showing an interest in them and their work will always help slowly bring a student out of this stage.
Key Theories in Educational Psychology
- Я же угада… - Но она замолкла на полуслове. На ее пальце было не кольцо Танкадо. Это было другое кольцо - платиновое, с крупным сверкающим бриллиантом. Сьюзан охнула. Дэвид посмотрел ей в глаза: - Ты выйдешь за меня замуж.
Он признался во всем - в том, как понял, что Северная Дакота всего лишь призрак, в том, что нанял людей, чтобы те убили Энсея Танкадо и забрали у него кольцо, в том, что столкнул вниз Фила Чатрукьяна, потому что рассчитывал продать ключ от Цифровой крепости. Сьюзан дошла до последней строки. В ней говорилось о том, к чему она совершенно не была готова. Последние слова записки стали для нее сильнейшим ударом. И в первую очередь я сожалею о Дэвиде Беккере.
Еще здесь был вещевой мешок, который полиция взяла в отеле, где остановился этот человек. Беккер получил четкие инструкции: ни к чему не прикасаться, ничего не читать. Просто все привезти. Абсолютно .
- Это. Теперь все в порядке. Сьюзан не могла унять дрожь.
Сьюзан собралась с мыслями и шагнула в дверной проем. Компьютер зафиксировал ее прибытие. Хотя Сьюзан практически не покидала шифровалку в последние три года, она не переставала восхищаться этим сооружением. Главное помещение представляло собой громадную округлую камеру высотой в пять этажей.
Но я уезжаю сегодня вечером. Пожалуй, я все же оставлю ей записку. - И он положил конверт на стойку.