Advantages And Disadvantages Of Using Questionnaires PdfBy Maria L. In and pdf 15.05.2021 at 14:26 5 min read
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- Advantages and Disadvantages of Surveys
- Data Collection
- A Review of Advantages-Disadvantages of Questionnaires as a Data Collection Tool
Questionnaires are a very useful survey tool that allow large populations to be assessed with relative ease. Despite a widespread perception that surveys are easy to conduct, in order to yield meaningful results, a survey needs extensive planning, time and effort. In this article, we aim to cover the main aspects of designing, implementing and analysing a survey as well as focusing on techniques that would improve response rates.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Surveys
Kevin B. This article examines some advantages and disadvantages of conducting online survey research. It explores current features, issues, pricing, and limitations associated with products and services, such as online questionnaire features and services to facilitate the online survey process, such as those offered by web survey businesses.
The review shows that current online survey products and services can vary considerably in terms of available features, consumer costs, and limitations. It is concluded that online survey researchers should conduct a careful assessment of their research goals, research timeline, and financial situation before choosing a specific product or service.
The technology for online survey research is young and evolving. Until recently, creating and conducting an online survey was a time-consuming task requiring familiarity with web authoring programs, HTML code, and scripting programs. Today, survey authoring software packages and online survey services make online survey research much easier and faster. Yet many researchers in different disciplines may be unaware of the advantages and disadvantages associated with conducting survey research online.
Advantages include access to individuals in distant locations, the ability to reach difficult to contact participants, and the convenience of having automated data collection, which reduces researcher time and effort.
Disadvantages of online survey research include uncertainty over the validity of the data and sampling issues, and concerns surrounding the design, implementation, and evaluation of an online survey. This article considers and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages related to conducting online surveys identified in previous research. In addition, it reviews the current state of available web survey software packages and services, various features of these software packages and services, and their advantages and limitations.
The purpose of the article is to provide an overview of issues and resources in order to assist researchers in determining if they would benefit from using online surveys, and to guide them in the selection and use of online survey techniques.
To facilitate these goals, which are both methodological and applied, the author draws on published research dealing with online survey methods, as well as his experience conducting more than 10 online surveys. Researchers in a variety of disciplines may find the Internet a fruitful area for conducting survey research.
As the cost of computer hardware and software continues to decrease, and the popularity of the Internet increases, more segments of society are using the Internet for communication and information Fox et al. Thousands of groups and organizations have moved online, many of them aggressively promoting their presence through the use of search engines, email lists, and banner advertisements.
These organizations not only offer information to consumers, they also present opportunities for researchers to access a variety of populations who are affiliated with these groups. Communication researchers may find the Internet an especially rich domain for conducting survey research. In many cases, communities and groups exist only in cyberspace.
For example, it would be difficult to find a large, concentrated group of people conducting face-to-face discussions of topics such as cyber-stalking, online stock trading, and the pros and cons of virtual dating. While people certainly discuss such issues among friends, family members, and co-workers, few meet face-to-face in large groups to discuss them.
One advantage of virtual communities as sites for research is that they offer a mechanism through which a researcher can gain access to people who share specific interests, attitudes, beliefs, and values regarding an issue, problem, or activity.
For example, researchers can find a concentrated number of older individuals who use computers on the Internet-based community SeniorNet Furlong, ; Wright, a , c.
In contrast, with traditional survey research methods it may be more difficult to reach a large number of demographically-similar older people who are interested in computers. Another example is the case of individuals with diseases or conditions, such as HIV, eating disorders, and physical disabilities. Individuals with these conditions and diseases are often difficult to reach because they are stigmatized offline. More generally, the Internet enables communication among people who may be hesitant to meet face-to-face.
For example, individuals with unpopular political views may hesitate to express themselves openly, and groups of individuals such as Arab-Americans may feel uncomfortable talking about anti-Arab sentiment in public places Muhtaseb, These individuals and groups often can be reached on the Internet in larger numbers than would be possible using face-to-face research methods.
A second advantage is that Internet-based survey research may save time for researchers. A researcher interested in surveying hard-to-reach populations can quickly gain access to large numbers of such individuals by posting invitations to participate to newsgroups, chat rooms, and message board communities.
In the face-to-face research environment, it would take considerably longer-if it were possible at all-to find an equivalent number of people with specific attributes, interests, and attitudes in one location. Once an invitation to participate in a survey is posted to the website of a community of interest, emailed to people through a listserv service, or distributed through an online survey research service, researchers may collect data while working on other projects Andrews et al.
Responses to online surveys can be transmitted to the researcher immediately via email, or posted to an HTML document or database file. This allows researchers to conduct preliminary analyses on collected data while waiting for the desired number of responses to accumulate Llieva et al. First generation online survey researchers often used email-based surveys, which involved creating online survey forms using word processing software, and later used products such as Macromedia's Dreamweaver.
More recently, online survey creation software packages provide a variety of templates to create and implement online surveys more easily, as well as to export data to statistical software packages.
Moreover, a number of online survey services provide survey design assistance, generate samples, and analyze and interpret data. Some of the newer software packages and web-based services are detailed below. Paper surveys tend to be costly, even when using a relatively small sample, and the costs of a traditional large-scale survey using mailed questionnaires can be enormous. The use of online surveys circumvents this problem by eliminating the need for paper and other costs, such as those incurred through postage, printing, and data entry Llieva et al.
Costs for recording equipment, travel, and the telephone can be eliminated. In addition, transcription costs can be avoided since online responses are automatically documented. Newer online survey creation software and web survey services costs can vary from very little to thousands of dollars depending upon the types of features and services selected; however, this is relatively inexpensive compared to the cost of traditional paper-and-pencil surveys.
As discussed above, online surveys offer many advantages over traditional surveys. However, there are also disadvantages that should be considered by researchers contemplating using online survey methodology.
Although many of the problems discussed in this section are also inherent in traditional survey research, some are unique to the computer medium. When conducting online research, investigators can encounter problems as regards sampling Andrews et al. For example, relatively little may be known about the characteristics of people in online communities, aside from some basic demographic variables, and even this information may be questionable Dillman, ; Stanton, A number of recent web survey services provide access to certain populations by offering access to email lists generated from other online surveys conducted through the web survey service.
Some offer access to specialized populations based on data from previous surveys. However, if the data were self-reported, there is no guarantee that participants from previous surveys provided accurate demographic or characteristics information. Some virtual groups and organizations provide membership email lists that can help researchers establish a sampling frame.
However, not all members of virtual groups and organizations allow their email addresses to be listed, and some may not allow administrators to provide their email addresses to researchers. This makes accurately sizing an online population difficult.
Once an email list is obtained, it is possible to email an online survey invitation and link to every member on the list. Theoretically, this can give researchers a sampling frame. One solution is for researchers to require participants to contact them to obtain a unique code number and a place to include this code number on the online questionnaire prior to completing a survey.
However, requiring this extra step may significantly reduce the response rate. Another solution that some newer web survey programs offer is response tracking. Participants are required to submit their email address in order to complete the survey. Once they have completed the survey, the survey program remembers the participant's email address and does not allow anyone using that email address access to the survey. Establishing a sampling frame when researching an online community presents a number of challenges.
Unlike membership-based organizations, many online communities, such as community bulletin boards and chat rooms, do not typically provide participant email addresses. Membership is based on common interests, not fees, and little information is required when registering to use these communities, if registration is required at all.
Some researchers attempt to establish a sampling frame by counting the number of participants in an online community, or the published number of members, over a given period of time. In either case, the ebb and flow of communication in online communities can make it difficult to establish an accurate sampling frame. For example, participation in online communities may be sporadic depending on the nature of the group and the individuals involved in discussions.
Because lurkers do not make their presence known to the group, this makes it difficult to obtain an accurate sampling frame or an accurate estimate of the population characteristics.
As internet communities become more stable, some community administrators are beginning to compile statistics on their community's participants. Many communities require a person to register with the community in order to participate in discussions, and some communities are willing to provide researchers with statistics about community membership at least in aggregate form.
Registration typically involves asking for the individual's name, basic demographic information such as age and gender, and email address. Other community administrators might ask participants for information about interests, income level, education, etc.
Some communities are willing to share participant information with researchers as a validation technique by comparing the survey sample characteristics with those of the online community in general. Yet, because individuals easily can lie about any information they report to community administrators, there is no guarantee of accuracy. When possible, using both online and traditional paper surveys helps to assess whether individuals responding to the online version are responding in systematically different ways from those who completed the paper version.
For example, Query and Wright used a combination of online and paper surveys to study older adults who were caregivers for loved ones with Alzheimer's disease. The researchers attempted to assess whether the online responses were skewed in any way by comparing the responses from both subsamples. While no significant differences between the two subsamples were found in this particular study, real differences in responses between Internet users and non-Internet users might exist in other populations.
This may make it difficult to assess whether the observed differences are due to factors such as participant deception or actual differences due to characteristics associated with computer and non-computer users. One relatively inexpensive technique used by market researchers to increase response rates is to offer some type of financial incentive, e. Individuals who participate in the survey are given a chance to win a prize or gift certificate, and the winner is selected randomly from the pool of respondents.
However, this technique is not without problems. Straight incentives such as a coupon redeemable for real merchandise, i. Self-selection bias is another major limitation of online survey research Stanton, ; Thompson et al. In any given Internet community, there are undoubtedly some individuals who are more likely than others to complete an online survey. Many Internet communities pay for community operations with advertising. This can desensitize participants to worthwhile survey requests posted on the website.
In short, there is a tendency of some individuals to respond to an invitation to participate in an online survey, while others ignore it, leading to a systematic bias. These sampling issues inhibit researchers' ability to make generalizations about study findings. This, in turn, limits their ability to estimate population parameters, which presents the greatest threat to conducting probability research.
For researchers interested only in conducting nonprobability research, these issues are somewhat less of a concern. Researchers who use nonprobability samples assume that they will not be able to estimate population parameters. Many of the problems discussed here are not unique to online survey research. Mailed surveys suffer from the same basic limitations. While a researcher may have a person's mailing address, he or she does not know for certain whether the recipient of the mailed survey is the person who actually completes and returns it Schmidt, Moreover, respondents to mailed surveys can misrepresent their age, gender, level of education, and a host of other variables as easily as a person can in an online survey.
Descriptions of key issues in survey research and questionnaire design are highlighted in the following sections. Modes of data collection approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages. Descriptions of commonly used sampling designs are provided and the primary sources of survey error are identified. Terms relating to the topics discussed here are defined in the Research Glossary. The population may be composed of a group of individuals e. There are many different types of surveys, several ways to administer them, and different methods for selecting the sample of individuals or organizations that will be invited to participate.
questionnaires are more objective, certainly more so than interviews. x Generally it is relatively quick to collect information using a questionnaire. However in some.
A Review of Advantages-Disadvantages of Questionnaires as a Data Collection Tool
This article aims to identify and explain some of the advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires. Questionnaires are often used by researchers in quantitative research as they are understood to be very useful to collect large amounts of data from a large sample of people. However, questionnaires are not without some limitations. It is, therefore, important for researchers to examine the advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires before deciding whether they should use this instrument in their research or not. According to Cambridge Dictionary , a questionnaire is a list of questions that several people are asked so that information can be collected about something.
Use of questionnaire in field research offers the following advantages. The questionnaire has great potentialities when it is properly used. It is an economical way of accumulating information of significance from international marketer. When the respondents are scattered far and wide, it will be a better tool as compared to the tools like interview or observation.
This article is a part of the guide:
Among the different methods of data gathering for research purposes, the survey method is preferred by many researchers due to its various advantages, strengths and benefits. However, surveys also have their disadvantages and weak points that must be considered. Surveys provide a high level of general capability in representing a large population. Due to the usual huge number of people who answers survey, the data being gathered possess a better description of the relative characteristics of the general population involved in the study. As compared to other methods of data gathering, surveys are able to extract data that are near to the exact attributes of the larger population.
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Думала, кое-кто помоложе? - засмеялся Стратмор. - Да нет, сэр, - попыталась она сгладить неловкость. - Не в этом дело… - Да в этом. - Он все еще посмеивался.
Стратмор сидел за современным письменным столом с двумя клавиатурами и монитором в расположенной сбоку нише.
Утечка информации. - Никаких изменений. Внезапно Мидж судорожно указала на экран. - Смотрите. На экран выплыла надпись: КЛЮЧ К ШИФРУ-УБИЙЦЕ ПОДТВЕРЖДЕН - Укрепить защитные стены! - приказал Джабба.
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