List Of Pesticides And Their Uses PdfBy Maria G. In and pdf 16.05.2021 at 11:56 5 min read
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The term pesticide covers a wide range of compounds including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, molluscicides, nematicides, plant growth regulators and others.
- The Most Widely Used Pesticide, One Year Later
- Recordkeeping Resources
- Major Uses of Pesticides
The Most Widely Used Pesticide, One Year Later
The term pesticide covers a wide range of compounds including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, molluscicides, nematicides, plant growth regulators and others.
Among these, organochlorine OC insecticides, used successfully in controlling a number of diseases, such as malaria and typhus, were banned or restricted after the s in most of the technologically advanced countries. The introduction of other synthetic insecticides — organophosphate OP insecticides in the s, carbamates in s and pyrethroids in s and the introduction of herbicides and fungicides in the s—s contributed greatly to pest control and agricultural output.
Ideally a pesticide must be lethal to the targeted pests, but not to non-target species, including man. Unfortunately, this is not the case, so the controversy of use and abuse of pesticides has surfaced. The production of pesticides started in India in with the establishment of a plant for the production of BHC near Calcutta, and India is now the second largest manufacturer of pesticides in Asia after China and ranks twelfth globally Mathur, There has been a steady growth in the production of technical grade pesticides in India, from 5, metric tons in to , metric tons in In —97 the demand for pesticides in terms of value was estimated to be around Rs.
The pattern of pesticide usage in India is different from that for the world in general. The use of herbicides and fungicides is correspondingly less heavy. The primary benefits are the consequences of the pesticides' effects — the direct gains expected from their use. For example the effect of killing caterpillars feeding on the crop brings the primary benefit of higher yields and better quality of cabbage.
The three main effects result in 26 primary benefits ranging from protection of recreational turf to saved human lives. The secondary benefits are the less immediate or less obvious benefits that result from the primary benefits. They may be subtle, less intuitively obvious, or of longer term. It follows that for secondary benefits it is therefore more difficult to establish cause and effect, but nevertheless they can be powerful justifications for pesticide use.
For example the higher cabbage yield might bring additional revenue that could be put towards children's education or medical care, leading to a healthier, better educated population. There are various secondary benefits identified, ranging from fitter people to conserved biodiversity. Tremendous benefits have been derived from the use of pesticides in forestry, public health and the domestic sphere — and, of course, in agriculture, a sector upon which the Indian economy is largely dependent.
Food grain production, which stood at a mere 50 million tons in —49, had increased almost fourfold to million tons by the end of —97 from an estimated million hectares of permanently cropped land. This result has been achieved by the use of high-yield varieties of seeds, advanced irrigation technologies and agricultural chemicals Employment Information: Indian Labour Statistics, Similarly outputs and productivity have increased dramatically in most countries, for example wheat yields in the United Kingdom, corn yields in the USA.
Increases in productivity have been due to several factors including use of fertiliser, better varieties and use of machinery. Pesticides have been an integral part of the process by reducing losses from the weeds, diseases and insect pests that can markedly reduce the amount of harvestable produce. Warren also drew attention to the spectacular increases in crop yields in the United States in the twentieth century. Webster et al. Moreover, in the environment most pesticides undergo photochemical transformation to produce metabolites which are relatively non-toxic to both human beings and the environment Kole et al.
Herbicides provided both an economic and labour benefit. Vector-borne diseases are most effectively tackled by killing the vectors. Insecticides are often the only practical way to control the insects that spread deadly diseases such as malaria, resulting in an estimated deaths each day Ross, In , Bhatia wrote that malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world and a major public health problem in India.
Disease control strategies are crucially important also for livestock. In countries of the first world, it has been observed that a diet containing fresh fruit and vegetables far outweigh potential risks from eating very low residues of pesticides in crops Brown, Increasing evidence Dietary Guidelines, shows that eating fruit and vegetables regularly reduces the risk of many cancers, high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and other chronic diseases.
Lewis et al. Lewis attributed doubling in wild blueberry production and subsequent increases in consumption chiefly to herbicide use that improved weed control. The transport sector makes extensive use of pesticides, particularly herbicides.
Herbicides and insecticides are used to maintain the turf on sports pitches, cricket grounds and golf courses. Insecticides protect buildings and other wooden structures from damage by termites and woodboring insects. If the credits of pesticides include enhanced economic potential in terms of increased production of food and fibre, and amelioration of vector-borne diseases, then their debits have resulted in serious health implications to man and his environment.
There is now overwhelming evidence that some of these chemicals do pose a potential risk to humans and other life forms and unwanted side effects to the environment Forget, ; Igbedioh, ; Jeyaratnam, No segment of the population is completely protected against exposure to pesticides and the potentially serious health effects, though a disproportionate burden, is shouldered by the people of developing countries and by high risk groups in each country WHO, The world-wide deaths and chronic diseases due to pesticide poisoning number about 1 million per year Environews Forum, The high risk groups exposed to pesticides include production workers, formulators, sprayers, mixers, loaders and agricultural farm workers.
During manufacture and formulation, the possibility of hazards may be higher because the processes involved are not risk free.
In industrial settings, workers are at increased risk since they handle various toxic chemicals including pesticides, raw materials, toxic solvents and inert carriers. OC compounds could pollute the tissues of virtually every life form on the earth, the air, the lakes and the oceans, the fishes that live in them and the birds that feed on the fishes Hurley et al.
Certain environmental chemicals, including pesticides termed as endocrine disruptors, are known to elicit their adverse effects by mimicking or antagonising natural hormones in the body and it has been postulated that their long-term, low-dose exposure is increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer Brouwer et al.
The magnitude of the toxicity risk involved in the spraying of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide, in field conditions was assessed by the National Institute of Occupational Health NIOH Saiyed et al. Significant changes were noticed in the ECG, the serum LDH levels, and cholinesterase ChE activities in the spraymen, indicating cardiotoxic effects of methomyl. Observations confined to health surveillance in male formulators engaged in production of dust and liquid formulations of various pesticides malathion, methyl parathion, DDT and lindane in industrial settings of the unorganised sector revealed a high occurrence of generalised symptoms headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, irritation of skin and eyes besides psychological, neurological, cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms coupled with low plasma ChE activity Gupta et al.
Data on reproductive toxicity were collected from 1, couples when the males were associated with the spraying of pesticides OC, OP and carbamates in cotton fields Rupa et al. A study on those affected in the Seveso diaster of in Italy during the production of 2,4,5 T, a herbicide, concluded that chloracne nearly cases with a definite exposure dependence was the only effect established with certainty as a result of dioxin formation Pier et al.
Early health investigations including liver function, immune function, neurologic impairment, and reproductive effects yielded inconclusive results. An excess mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was uncovered, possibly related to the psychosocial consequences of the accident in addition to the chemical contamination. An excess of diabetes cases was also found. Results of cancer incidence and mortality follow-up showed an increased occurrence of cancer of the gastrointestinal sites and of the lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue.
Results cannot be viewed as conclusive, however, because of various limitations: few individual exposure data, short latency period, and small population size for certain cancer types. A similar study in observed no increase in all-cause and all-cancer mortality. However, the results support the notion that dioxin is carcinogenic to humans and corroborate the hypotheses of its association with cardiovascular- and endocrine-related effects Pier et al.
During the Vietnam War, United States military forces sprayed nearly 19 million gallons of herbicide on approximately 3. This effort, known as Operation Ranch Hand, lasted from to Various herbicide formulations were used, but most were mixtures of the phenoxy herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4-D and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4,5-T.
Approximately 3 million Americans served in the armed forces in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Some of them as well as some Vietnamese combatants and civilians, and members of the armed forces of other nations were exposed to defoliant mixtures, including Agent Orange.
There was evidence on cancer risk of Vietnam veterans, workers occupationally exposed to herbicides or dioxins since dioxins contaminated the herbicide mixtures used in Vietnam , and of the Vietnamese population Frumkin, In , seven pesticides acephate, chlopyriphos, chlopyriphos-methyl, methamidophos, iprodione, procymidone and chlorothalonil and two groups of pesticides benomyl group and maneb group, i.
An average of about 9 samples has been analysed for each pesticide or pesticide group. For each pesticide or pesticide group, 5. Lettuce was the crop with the highest number of positive results, with residue levels exceeding the MRLs more frequently than in any of the other crops investigated. In , 13 pesticides acephate, carbendazin, chlorothalonil, chlopyriphos, DDT, diazinon, endosulfan, methamidophos, iprodione, metalaxyl, methidathion, thiabendazole, triazophos were assessed in five commodities mandarins, pears, bananas,beans, and potatoes.
Some 6 samples were analysed. Residues of chlorpyriphos exceeded MRLs most often 0. MRLs were exceeded most often in beans 1. Estimation of the dietary intake of pesticide residues based on the 90th percentile from the above-mentioned commodities, where the highest residue levels of the respective pesticides were found, shows that there is no exceeding of the ADI with all the pesticides and commodities studied European Commission, In , four commodities oranges, peaches, carrots, spinach were analysed for 20 pesticides acephate, benomyl group, chlopyriphos, chlopyriphos-methyl, deltamethrin, maneb group, diazinon, endosulfan, methamidophos, iprodione, metalaxyl, methidathion, thiabendazole, triazophos, permethrin, vinclozolin, lambdacyalothrin, pirimiphos-methyl, mercabam.
MRL values were exceeded most often in spinach 7. The intake of pesticide residues has not exceeded the ADI in any case. The exposure ranges from 0. In , four commodities cauliflower, peppers, wheat grains, and melon were analysed for the same 20 pesticides as in the study European Commission, Overall, around samples were analysed.
Residues of methamidophos exceeded MRLs most often 8. The MRL for methamidophos was exceeded most often in peppers and melons The residues of the maneb group exceeded the MRL most often in cauliflower 3.
The intake of pesticide residues did not exceed the ADI in any case. It was below 1. The exposure ranged between 0. The intakes for the highest residue levels in a composite sample for chlorpyriphos, deltamethrin, endosulfan and methidathion were below the ARfD for adults. They range between 1. In spite of food contamination, most pesticide deaths recorded in hospital surveys are the result of self-poisoning Eddleston, In India the first report of poisoning due to pesticides was from Kerala in , where over people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion Karunakaran, The highest level of DDT residues found was 2.
Measurement of chemicals in the total diet provides the best estimates of human exposure and of the potential risk. The risk of consumers may then be evaluated by comparison with toxicologically acceptable intake levels. Fatty food was the main source of these contaminants. In another study, the average daily intake of HCH and DDT by Indians was reported to be and 48 mg per person respectively, which were higher than those observed in most of the developed countries Kannan et al.
Pesticides can contaminate soil, water, turf, and other vegetation. In addition to killing insects or weeds, pesticides can be toxic to a host of other organisms including birds, fish, beneficial insects, and non-target plants. Insecticides are generally the most acutely toxic class of pesticides, but herbicides can also pose risks to non-target organisms.
Proceedings: Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Viewing 1 - 10 of 11 books in Pesticides, Insecticides and Herbicides. Review of the U.
Best management practices BMPs are practices that are capable of protecting the environment while considering economic factors, availability, technical feasibility, ability to implement, and effectiveness. The BMPs include mandatory label requirements and a series of optional voluntary practices. Together, these practices reduce contamination of water resources, reduce the severity of off-target impacts and guide chemical use while considering the specific needs of farming operations. The BMPs may also refer to mandatory label use requirements. Always read and follow product labels.
Major Uses of Pesticides
Insecticide , any toxic substance that is used to kill insects. Such substances are used primarily to control pests that infest cultivated plants or to eliminate disease-carrying insects in specific areas. Insecticides can be classified in any of several ways, on the basis of their chemistry, their toxicological action, or their mode of penetration. In the latter scheme, they are classified according to whether they take effect upon ingestion stomach poisons , inhalation fumigants , or upon penetration of the body covering contact poisons. Most synthetic insecticides penetrate by all three of these pathways, however, and hence are better distinguished from each other by their basic chemistry.
Welcome to our collection of private pesticide applicator recordkeeping resources. Here you will find printable record forms and digitally-fillable record forms, plus supplementary information to help you make safe and effective pesticide applications. Private applicators are required to make records of all applications involving restricted use pesticides RUPs. These records must be maintained for at least three years.
In March , the U.
The chronic toxicity of a pesticide is determined by subjecting test animals to long-term exposure to the active ingredient. The regulations concerning protection of bees from pesticides are found in the California Agricultural Code: Division 13, Chapter 1, Article 7, Sections at www. Recommendations for the. There are 12 biopesticides registered under Insecticides Act, Dermal exposure happens when your skin is exposed to pesticides.
Pesticide Descriptions. Chemical Name. This chemical does not leach and is unlikely to contaminate water bodies. It is found to exhibit very low ecological risks, to aquatic life, birds, and mammals.
7.1 How pesticides enter animals and plants
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