Political Power And Social Theory PdfBy Avice d. L. In and pdf 16.05.2021 at 16:45 4 min read
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- Conceptualizing power to study social-ecological interactions
- Power (social and political)
- Political Power and Social Theory
Culture and Politics pp Cite as. In several ways, Swidler provides a more developed analysis of the relationship between culture and social movements than does McAdam. First, she focuses on the ways culture shapes individual beliefs and desires.
Conceptualizing power to study social-ecological interactions
In social science and politics , power is the capacity of an individual to influence the actions, beliefs, or conduct behaviour of others. The term authority is often used for power that is perceived as legitimate by the social structure , not to be confused with authoritarianism. Power can be seen as evil or unjust ; however, power can also be seen as good and as something inherited or given for exercising humanistic objectives that will help, move, and empower others as well.
In general, it is derived by the factors of interdependence between two entities and the environment. The use of power need not involve force or the threat of force coercion. An example of using power without oppression is the concept " soft power ," as compared to hard power. In business , the ethical instrumentality of power is achievement, and as such it is a zero-sum game. In simple terms, it can be expressed as being upward or downward. With downward power, a company's superior influences subordinates for attaining organizational goals.
When a company exerts upward power, it is the subordinates who influence the decisions of their leader or leaders. In a now-classic study ,  social psychologists John R. French and Bertram Raven developed a schema of sources of power by which to analyse how power plays work or fail to work in a specific relationship.
According to French and Raven, power must be distinguished from influence in the following way: power is that state of affairs which holds in a given relationship, A-B, such that a given influence attempt by A over B makes A's desired change in B more likely.
Conceived this way, power is fundamentally relative — it depends on the specific understandings A and B each apply to their relationship, and requires B's recognition of a quality in A which would motivate B to change in the way A intends. A must draw on the 'base' or combination of bases of power appropriate to the relationship, to effect the desired outcome.
Drawing on the wrong power base can have unintended effects, including a reduction in A's own power. French and Raven argue that there are five significant categories of such qualities, while not excluding other minor categories.
Further bases have since been adduced — in particular by Gareth Morgan in his book, Images of Organization. Also called "positional power," legitimate power is the power of an individual because of the relative position and duties of the holder of the position within an organization. Legitimate power is formal authority delegated to the holder of the position.
It is usually accompanied by various attributes of power such as a uniform , a title, or an imposing physical office. Referent power is the power or ability of individuals to attract others and build loyalty. It is based on the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder. A person may be admired because of specific personal trait, and this admiration creates the opportunity for interpersonal influence.
Here the person under power desires to identify with these personal qualities, and gains satisfaction from being an accepted follower.
Nationalism and patriotism count towards an intangible sort of referent power. For example, soldiers fight in wars to defend the honor of the country. This is the second least obvious power, but the most effective. Advertisers have long used the referent power of sports figures for products endorsements, for example. The charismatic appeal of the sports star supposedly leads to an acceptance of the endorsement, although the individual may have little real credibility outside the sports arena.
Referent power is unstable alone, and is not enough for a leader who wants longevity and respect. When combined with other sources of power, however, it can help a person achieve great success. Expert power is an individual's power deriving from the skills or expertise of the person and the organization's needs for those skills and expertise. Unlike the others, this type of power is usually highly specific and limited to the particular area in which the expert is trained and qualified.
When they have knowledge and skills that enable them to understand a situation, suggest solutions, use solid judgment, and generally outperform others, then people tend to listen to them. When individuals demonstrate expertise, people tend to trust them and respect what they say.
As subject matter experts, their ideas will have more value, and others will look to them for leadership in that area. Reward power depends on the ability of the power wielder to confer valued material rewards, it refers to the degree to which the individual can give others a reward of some kind such as benefits, time off, desired gifts, promotions or increases in pay or responsibility.
This power is obvious but also ineffective if abused. People who abuse reward power can become pushy or be reprimanded for being too forthcoming or 'moving things too quickly'. If others expect to be rewarded for doing what someone wants, there's a high probability that they'll do it. The problem with this basis of power is that the rewarder may not have as much control over rewards as may be required. Supervisors rarely have complete control over salary increases, and managers often can't control promotions all by themselves.
And even a CEO needs permission from the board of directors for some actions. So when somebody uses up available rewards, or the rewards don't have enough perceived value to others, their power weakens.
One of the frustrations of using rewards is that they often need to be bigger each time if they're to have the same motivational impact. Even then, if rewards are given frequently, people can become satiated by the reward, such that it loses its effectiveness.
Coercive power is the application of negative influences. It includes the ability to demote or to withhold other rewards. The desire for valued rewards or the fear of having them withheld can ensure the obedience of those under power. Coercive power tends to be the most obvious but least effective form of power as it builds resentment and resistance from the people who experience it. Threats and punishment are common tools of coercion.
Implying or threatening that someone will be fired, demoted, denied privileges, or given undesirable assignments — these are characteristics of using coercive power. Extensive use of coercive power is rarely appropriate in an organizational setting, and relying on these forms of power alone will result in a very cold, impoverished style of leadership. This is a type of power commonly seen in fashion industry by coupling with legitimate power, it is referred in the industry specific literature's as "glamorization of structural domination and exploitation.
According to Laura K. Guerrero and Peter A. Andersen in Close encounters: Communication in Relationships : . Game theory , with its foundations in the Walrasian theory of rational choice , is increasingly used in various disciplines to help analyze power relationships. One rational choice definition of power is given by Keith Dowding in his book Power. In rational choice theory, human individuals or groups can be modelled as 'actors' who choose from a 'choice set' of possible actions in order to try to achieve desired outcomes.
An actor's 'incentive structure' comprises its beliefs about the costs associated with different actions in the choice set, and the likelihoods that different actions will lead to desired outcomes.
This framework can be used to model a wide range of social interactions where actors have the ability to exert power over others. For example, a 'powerful' actor can take options away from another's choice set; can change the relative costs of actions; can change the likelihood that a given action will lead to a given outcome; or might simply change the other's beliefs about its incentive structure. As with other models of power, this framework is neutral as to the use of 'coercion'.
For example: a threat of violence can change the likely costs and benefits of different actions; so can a financial penalty in a 'voluntarily agreed' contract, or indeed a friendly offer. In the Marxist tradition, the Italian writer Antonio Gramsci elaborated the role of ideology in creating a cultural hegemony , which becomes a means of bolstering the power of capitalism and of the nation-state. The back end, the beast, represented the more classic, material image of power, power through coercion, through brute force, be it physical or economic.
But the capitalist hegemony, he argued, depended even more strongly on the front end, the human face, which projected power through 'consent'. In Russia, this power was lacking, allowing for a revolution.
However, in Western Europe, specifically in Italy , capitalism had succeeded in exercising consensual power, convincing the working classes that their interests were the same as those of capitalists.
In this way, a revolution had been avoided. While Gramsci stresses the significance of ideology in power structures, Marxist-feminist writers such as Michele Barrett stress the role of ideologies in extolling the virtues of family life.
The classic argument to illustrate this point of view is the use of women as a ' reserve army of labour '. In wartime, it is accepted that women perform masculine tasks, while after the war the roles are easily reversed. Therefore, according to Barrett, the destruction of capitalist economic relations is necessary but not sufficient for the liberation of women.
Eugen Tarnow considers what power hijackers have over air plane passengers and draws similarities with power in the military.
If the group conforms to the leader's commands, the leader's power over an individual is greatly enhanced while if the group does not conform the leader's power over an individual is nil. For Michel Foucault , the real power will always rely on the ignorance of its agents. No single human, group nor single actor runs the dispositif machine or apparatus but power is dispersed through the apparatus as efficiently and silently as possible, ensuring its agents to do whatever is necessary.
It is because of this action that power is unlikely to be detected that it remains elusive to 'rational' investigation. This milieu both artificial and natural appears as a target of intervention for power according to Foucault which is radically different from the previous notions on sovereignty, territory and disciplinary space inter woven into from a social and political relations which function as a species biological species.
He writes, "A body is docile that may be subjected, used, transformed and improved. Stewart Clegg proposes another three-dimensional model with his "circuits of power"  theory. This model likens the production and organizing of power to an electric circuit board consisting of three distinct interacting circuits: episodic, dispositional, and facilitative. These circuits operate at three levels, two are macro and one is micro. The episodic circuit is the micro level and is constituted of irregular exercise of power as agents address feelings, communication, conflict, and resistance in day-to-day interrelations.
The outcomes of the episodic circuit are both positive and negative. The dispositional circuit is constituted of macro level rules of practice and socially constructed meanings that inform member relations and legitimate authority. The facilitative circuit is constituted of macro level technology, environmental contingencies, job design, and networks, which empower or disempower and thus punish or reward, agency in the episodic circuit.
All three independent circuits interact at "obligatory passage points" which are channels for empowerment or disempowerment. John Kenneth Galbraith summarizes the types of power as being "condign" based on force , "compensatory" through the use of various resources or "conditioned" the result of persuasion , and their sources as "personality" individuals , "property" their material resources and "organizational" whoever sits at the top of an organisational power structure.
Gene Sharp , an American professor of political science, believes that power depends ultimately on its bases. Thus a political regime maintains power because people accept and obey its dictates, laws and policies. Sharp's key theme is that power is not monolithic; that is, it does not derive from some intrinsic quality of those who are in power. For Sharp, political power, the power of any state — regardless of its particular structural organization — ultimately derives from the subjects of the state.
His fundamental belief is that any power structure relies upon the subjects' obedience to the orders of the ruler s. If subjects do not obey, leaders have no power.
By using this distinction, proportions of power can be analyzed in a more sophisticated way, helping to sufficiently reflect on matters of responsibility.
Power (social and political)
This article analyses the relationship between political theory and social theory. The separation of political and social theory and of political theory from other areas in the study of politics is a relatively recent development. In spite of their differences, however, political and social theory share the one set of historical roots and, partly in consequence, a core set of assumptions. They specifically share intellectual and cultural history. Barry Hindess, after working as a sociologist in Britain, learned to pass as a political scientist at Australian National University, where he is now an Emeritus Professor in the School of Politics and International Relations.
United Kingdom Universities and research institutions in United Kingdom. Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. The set of journals have been ranked according to their SJR and divided into four equal groups, four quartiles. Q1 green comprises the quarter of the journals with the highest values, Q2 yellow the second highest values, Q3 orange the third highest values and Q4 red the lowest values. The SJR is a size-independent prestige indicator that ranks journals by their 'average prestige per article'.
Political Power and Social Theory
In respone to these concerns, my objective in this paper is to review and synthesize social science theory to facilitate a useful engagement between studies of resilience and the concept of power. The article comprises three parts. First, I briefly review the critique, and how resilience scholars so far have dealt with power conceptually and empirically. Second, I review how power has been used as central concept in social scientific theory, and I introduce a conceptualization of power to study social-ecological interactions. Finally, I illustrate how power can be used to study social-ecological interactions based on the example of fire domestication, and I discuss implications for further research.
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Она съежилась от этого прикосновения.