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- Handbook of Research on Advances and Applications in Refrigeration Systems and Technologies
- Refrigeration Systems and Applications PDF
- Refrigeration Systems and Applications
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Handbook of Research on Advances and Applications in Refrigeration Systems and Technologies
The work of energy transfer is traditionally driven by mechanical means, but can also be driven by heat, magnetism , electricity , laser , or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including household refrigerators , industrial freezers , cryogenics , and air conditioning.
Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, and also may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to air conditioning units.
Refrigeration has had a large impact on industry, lifestyle, agriculture, and settlement patterns. The idea of preserving food dates back to at least the ancient Roman and Chinese empires. However, mechanical refrigeration technology has rapidly evolved in the last century, from ice harvesting to temperature-controlled rail cars.
The introduction of refrigerated rail cars contributed to the westward expansion of the United States, allowing settlement in areas that were not on main transport channels such as rivers, harbors, or valley trails. Settlements were also developing in infertile parts of the country, filled with newly discovered natural resources. These new settlement patterns sparked the building of large cities which are able to thrive in areas that were otherwise thought to be inhospitable, such as Houston , Texas, and Las Vegas , Nevada.
In most developed countries, cities are heavily dependent upon refrigeration in supermarkets in order to obtain their food for daily consumption. The increase in food sources has led to a larger concentration of agricultural sales coming from a smaller percentage of farms. Farms today have a much larger output per person in comparison to the late s.
This has resulted in new food sources available to entire populations, which has had a large impact on the nutrition of society. The seasonal harvesting of snow and ice is an ancient practice estimated to have begun earlier than BC.
However, little is known about the construction of these ice cellars or what the ice was used for. Other ancient cultures such as the Greeks and the Romans dug large snow pits insulated with grass, chaff, or branches of trees as cold storage. Like the Jews, the Greeks and Romans did not use ice and snow to preserve food, but primarily as a means to cool beverages. The Egyptians also developed methods to cool beverages, but in lieu of using ice to cool water, the Egyptians cooled water by putting boiling water in shallow earthen jars and placing them on the roofs of their houses at night.
Slaves would moisten the outside of the jars and the resulting evaporation would cool the water. The ancient people of India used this same concept to produce ice. The Persians stored ice in a pit called a Yakhchal and may have been the first group of people to use cold storage to preserve food. In the Australian outback before a reliable electricity supply was available where the weather could be hot and dry, many farmers used a Coolgardie safe.
This consisted of a room with hessian burlap curtains hanging from the ceiling soaked in water. The water would evaporate and thereby cool the hessian curtains and thereby the air circulating in the room.
This would allow many perishables such as fruit, butter, and cured meats to be kept that would normally spoil in the heat. Before , few Americans used ice to refrigerate foods due to a lack of ice-storehouses and iceboxes. As these two things became more widely available, individuals used axes and saws to harvest ice for their storehouses. This method proved to be difficult, dangerous, and certainly did not resemble anything that could be duplicated on a commercial scale.
Despite the difficulties of harvesting ice, Frederic Tudor thought that he could capitalize on this new commodity by harvesting ice in New England and shipping it to the Caribbean islands as well as the southern states. In the beginning, Tudor lost thousands of dollars, but eventually turned a profit as he constructed icehouses in Charleston, Virginia and in the Cuban port town of Havana.
This efficiency gain influenced Tudor to expand his ice market to other towns with icehouses such as New Orleans and Savannah. This ice market further expanded as harvesting ice became faster and cheaper after one of Tudor's suppliers, Nathaniel Wyeth, invented a horse-drawn ice cutter in This invention as well as Tudor's success inspired others to get involved in the ice trade and the ice industry grew.
Ice became a mass-market commodity by the early s with the price of ice dropping from six cents per pound to a half of a cent per pound. In New York City, ice consumption increased from 12, tons in to , tons in Boston's consumption leapt from 6, tons to 85, tons during that same period. These early cold storage practices paved the way for many Americans to accept the refrigeration technology that would soon take over the country.
The history of artificial refrigeration began when Scottish professor William Cullen designed a small refrigerating machine in Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether , which then boiled , absorbing heat from the surrounding air.
In , Benjamin Franklin and John Hadley , professor of chemistry, collaborated on a project investigating the principle of evaporation as a means to rapidly cool an object at Cambridge University , England. They confirmed that the evaporation of highly volatile liquids, such as alcohol and ether, could be used to drive down the temperature of an object past the freezing point of water.
Franklin wrote, "From this experiment, one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer's day". In the English scientist Michael Faraday liquefied ammonia and other gases by using high pressures and low temperatures, and in , an American expatriate to Great Britain, Jacob Perkins , built the first working vapor-compression refrigeration system in the world.
It was a closed-cycle that could operate continuously, as he described in his patent:. His prototype system worked although it did not succeed commercially. In , a similar attempt was made by American physician, John Gorrie ,  who built a working prototype, but it was a commercial failure.
Like many of the medical experts during this time, Gorrie thought too much exposure to tropical heat led to mental and physical degeneration, as well as the spread of diseases such as malaria. American engineer Alexander Twining took out a British patent in for a vapour compression system that used ether. The first practical vapour-compression refrigeration system was built by James Harrison , a British journalist who had emigrated to Australia.
His patent was for a vapour-compression system using ether, alcohol, or ammonia. He built a mechanical ice-making machine in on the banks of the Barwon River at Rocky Point in Geelong , Victoria , and his first commercial ice-making machine followed in Harrison also introduced commercial vapour-compression refrigeration to breweries and meat-packing houses, and by , a dozen of his systems were in operation.
He later entered the debate of how to compete against the American advantage of unrefrigerated beef sales to the United Kingdom. In he prepared the sailing ship Norfolk for an experimental beef shipment to the United Kingdom, which used a cold room system instead of a refrigeration system.
The venture was a failure as the ice was consumed faster than expected. Carl von Linde , an engineer specializing in steam locomotives and professor of engineering at the Technological University of Munich in Germany, began researching refrigeration in the s and s in response to demand from brewers for a technology that would allow year-round, large-scale production of lager ; he patented an improved method of liquefying gases in Thaddeus Lowe , an American balloonist, held several patents on ice-making machines.
His "Compression Ice Machine" would revolutionize the cold-storage industry. In other investors and he purchased an old steamship onto which they loaded one of Lowe's refrigeration units and began shipping fresh fruit from New York to the Gulf Coast area, and fresh meat from Galveston, Texas back to New York, but because of Lowe's lack of knowledge about shipping, the business was a costly failure. In John Gorrie created a system capable of refrigerating water to produce ice.
Although it was a commercial failure, it inspired scientists and inventors around the world. France's Ferdinand Carre was one of the inspired and he created an ice producing system that was simpler and smaller than that of Gorrie. Carre's refrigeration system became the solution to New Orleans ice problems and by the city had three of Carre's machines.
In , the patent for this machine was contracted by the Columbus Iron Works, a company acquired by the W. Bradley Co. By the s breweries had become the largest users of harvested ice. Though the ice-harvesting industry had grown immensely by the turn of the 20th century, pollution and sewage had begun to creep into natural ice, making it a problem in the metropolitan suburbs.
Eventually, breweries began to complain of tainted ice. Public concern for the purity of water, from which ice was formed, began to increase in the early s with the rise of germ theory. Numerous media outlets published articles connecting diseases such as typhoid fever with natural ice consumption.
This caused ice harvesting to become illegal in certain areas of the country. All of these scenarios increased the demands for modern refrigeration and manufactured ice.
Ice producing machines like that of Carre's and Muhl's were looked to as means of producing ice to meet the needs of grocers, farmers, and food shippers. Refrigerated railroad cars were introduced in the US in the s for short-run transport of dairy products, but these used harvested ice to maintain a cool temperature. The new refrigerating technology first met with widespread industrial use as a means to freeze meat supplies for transport by sea in reefer ships from the British Dominions and other countries to the British Isles.
The first to achieve this breakthrough was an entrepreneur who had emigrated to New Zealand. William Soltau Davidson thought that Britain's rising population and meat demand could mitigate the slump in world wool markets that was heavily affecting New Zealand.
After extensive research, he commissioned the Dunedin to be refitted with a compression refrigeration unit for meat shipment in On February 15, , the Dunedin sailed for London with what was to be the first commercially successful refrigerated shipping voyage, and the foundation of the refrigerated meat industry.
The Times commented "Today we have to record such a triumph over physical difficulties, as would have been incredible, even unimaginable, a very few days ago The Marlborough —sister ship to the Dunedin — was immediately converted and joined the trade the following year, along with the rival New Zealand Shipping Company vessel Mataurua , while the German Steamer Marsala began carrying frozen New Zealand lamb in December Within five years, shipments of frozen meat were sent from New Zealand to the United Kingdom, of which only 9 had significant amounts of meat condemned.
Refrigerated shipping also led to a broader meat and dairy boom in Australasia and South America. By the s refrigeration played a vital role in the distribution of food. The meat-packing industry relied heavily on natural ice in the s and continued to rely on manufactured ice as those technologies became available.
By almost every location used artificial refrigeration. The major meat packers , Armour, Swift, and Wilson, had purchased the most expensive units which they installed on train cars and in branch houses and storage facilities in the more remote distribution areas. By the middle of the 20th century, refrigeration units were designed for installation on trucks or lorries. Refrigerated vehicles are used to transport perishable goods, such as frozen foods, fruit and vegetables, and temperature-sensitive chemicals.
Although commercial refrigeration quickly progressed, it had limitations that prevented it from moving into the household. First, most refrigerators were far too large. Some of the commercial units being used in weighed between five and two hundred tons. Second, commercial refrigerators were expensive to produce, purchase, and maintain. Lastly, these refrigerators were unsafe. It was not uncommon for commercial refrigerators to catch fire, explode, or leak toxic gases. Refrigeration did not become a household technology until these three challenges were overcome.
During the early s consumers preserved their food by storing food and ice purchased from ice harvesters in iceboxes. In , Thomas Moore patented a metal-lined butter-storage tub which became the prototype for most iceboxes. These iceboxes were used until nearly and the technology did not progress.
Refrigeration Systems and Applications PDF
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Refrigeration Systems and Applications
Buy from Amazon. The book also includes some discussion of global warming issues and its potential solutions. Refrigeration is extensively used in a variety of thermal engineering applications ranging from the cooling of electronic devices to food cooling processes. Its wide-ranging implications and applications mean that this industry plays a key role in national and international economies, and it continues to be an area of active research and development. It also contains new energy and exergy analyses.
The equipment used for removing the heat continuously for maintaining a low temperature in a space is called 'refrigerator'. In the last session, we had discussed Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle and in today's session, we can discuss in detail the concept of Refrigeration along with its Definition, Unit, Classification of Refrigerants and Applications. Refrigeration may be defined as a process of removing heat from a substance and pumping it to the surroundings.
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As the name suggests, these types of systems transfer heat by mechanically compressing refrigerant into a low-pressure, cold liquid and expanding it into a high-pressure, hot gas. In this system, the working fluid is a vapor. Matter, Internal Energy, Heat, Temperature 3. Thermodynamic Processes 4. The global industrial refrigeration system market size is expected to reach USD
The refrigeration industry has drastically expanded during the past two decades to play a significant role in societies and their economies. Therefore, the economic impact of refrigeration technology throughout the world has become more impressive and will continue to become even more impressive in the future because of the increasing demand for refrigeration systems and applications. Of course, this technology serves to improve living conditions in countless ways. This second edition of the book has improved and enhanced contents in several topics, particularly in advanced refrigeration systems.
The work of energy transfer is traditionally driven by mechanical means, but can also be driven by heat, magnetism , electricity , laser , or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including household refrigerators , industrial freezers , cryogenics , and air conditioning. Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, and also may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to air conditioning units. Refrigeration has had a large impact on industry, lifestyle, agriculture, and settlement patterns. The idea of preserving food dates back to at least the ancient Roman and Chinese empires.
Advisory Board · FAQ. Search. Refrigeration Systems and Applications Open Access. ISBN (Pbk); ISBN (PDF).
Comparative Energy and Exergy Analyses
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