Assurance And Thinking Skills In Biology PdfBy Kevin C. In and pdf 17.05.2021 at 19:57 7 min read
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However, technologists have largely ignored emotion and created an often frustrating experience for people, in part because affect has been misunderstood and hard to measure.
Self-esteem is an individual's subjective evaluation of their own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself for example, "I am unloved", "I am worthy" as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame.
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Self-esteem is an individual's subjective evaluation of their own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself for example, "I am unloved", "I am worthy" as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame. Self-esteem is an attractive psychological construct because it predicts certain outcomes, such as academic achievement,   happiness,  satisfaction in marriage and relationships,  and criminal behavior.
Psychologists usually regard self-esteem as an enduring personality characteristic trait self-esteem , though normal, short-term variations state self-esteem also exist. Synonyms or near-synonyms of self-esteem include many things: self-worth,  self-regard,  self-respect,   and self-integrity.
The concept of self-esteem has its origins in the 18th century, first expressed in the writings of David Hume. The Scottish enlightenment thinker, shows the idea that it is important to value and think well of yourself because it serves as a motivational function that enables people to explore their full potential. The identification of self-esteem as a distinct psychological construct has its origins in the work of philosopher, psychologist, geologist, and anthropologist William James James identified multiple dimensions of the self, with two levels of hierarchy: processes of knowing called the 'I-self' and the resulting knowledge about the self the 'Me-self'.
The observation about the self and storage of those observations by the I-self creates three types of knowledge, which collectively account for the Me-self, according to James. These are the material self , social self , and spiritual self.
The social self comes closest to self-esteem, comprising all characteristics recognized by others. The material self consists of representations of the body and possessions and the spiritual self of descriptive representations and evaluative dispositions regarding the self. This view of self-esteem as the collection of an individual's attitudes toward oneself remains today. In the mids, social psychologist Morris Rosenberg defined self-esteem as a feeling of self-worth and developed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale RSES , which became the most-widely used scale to measure self-esteem in the social sciences.
In the early 20th century, the behaviorist movement minimized introspective study of mental processes, emotions, and feelings, replacing introspection with objective study through experiments on behaviors observed in relation with the environment.
Behaviorism viewed the human being as an animal subject to reinforcements, and suggested placing psychology as an experimental science, similar to chemistry or biology. As a consequence, clinical trials on self-esteem were overlooked, since behaviorists considered the idea less liable to rigorous measurement.
Self-esteem then took a central role in personal self-actualization and in the treatment of psychic disorders. Psychologists started to consider the relationship between psychotherapy and the personal satisfaction of persons with high self-esteem as useful to the field.
This led to new elements being introduced to the concept of self-esteem, including the reasons why people tend to feel less worthy and why people become discouraged or unable to meet challenges by themselves. In the political scientist Francis Fukuyama associated self-esteem with what Plato called thymos — the " spiritedness " part of the Platonic soul.
As of [update] the core self-evaluations approach included self-esteem as one of four dimensions that comprise one's fundamental appraisal of oneself - along with locus of control , neuroticism , and self-efficacy. The importance of self-esteem gained endorsement from some government and non-government groups starting around the s, such that one can speak of a self-esteem movement.
A leading figure of the movement, psychologist Nathaniel Branden , stated: "[I] cannot think of a single psychological problem — from anxiety and depression, to fear of intimacy or of success, to spouse battery or child molestation — that is not traced back to the problem of low self-esteem".
Self-esteem was believed [ by whom? Vasconcellos argued that this task force could combat many of the state's problems — from crime and teen pregnancy to school underachievement and pollution. The task force set up committees in many California counties and formed a committee of scholars to review the available literature on self-esteem.
This committee found very small associations between low self-esteem and its assumed consequences, ultimately showing that low self-esteem is not the root of all societal problems and not as important as the committee had originally thought. However, the authors of the paper that summarized the review of the literature still believe that self-esteem is an independent variable that affects major social problems. Many early theories suggested that self-esteem is a basic human need or motivation.
American psychologist Abraham Maslow included self-esteem in his hierarchy of human needs. He described two different forms of "esteem": the need for respect from others in the form of recognition, success, and admiration, and the need for self-respect in the form of self-love, self-confidence, skill, or aptitude. According to Maslow, without the fulfillment of the self-esteem need, individuals will be driven to seek it and unable to grow and obtain self-actualization.
Maslow also states that the healthiest expression of self-esteem "is the one which manifests in the respect we deserve for others, more than renown, fame, and flattery". Modern theories of self-esteem explore the reasons humans are motivated to maintain a high regard for themselves. Sociometer theory maintains that self-esteem evolved to check one's level of status and acceptance in ones' social group.
According to Terror Management Theory , self-esteem serves a protective function and reduces anxiety about life and death. Carl Rogers — , an advocate of humanistic psychology , theorized the origin of many people's problems to be that they despise themselves and consider themselves worthless and incapable of being loved. This is why Rogers believed in the importance of giving unconditional acceptance to a client and when this was done it could improve the client's self-esteem.
Every human being, with no exception, for the mere fact to be it, is worthy of unconditional respect of everybody else; he deserves to esteem himself and to be esteemed. One of the most widely used instruments, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale RSES is a item self-esteem scale score that requires participants to indicate their level of agreement with a series of statements about themselves.
An alternative measure, The Coopersmith Inventory uses a question battery over a variety of topics and asks subjects whether they rate someone as similar or dissimilar to themselves. If those answers reveal some inner shame, it considers them to be prone to social deviance. Implicit measures of self-esteem began to be used in the s. When used to assess implicit self-esteem, psychologists feature self-relevant stimuli to the participant and then measure how quickly a person identifies positive or negative stimuli.
Experiences in a person's life are a major source of how self-esteem develops. These feelings translate into later effects on self-esteem as the child grows older. Although studies thus far have reported only a correlation of warm, supportive parenting styles mainly authoritative and permissive with children having high self-esteem, these parenting styles could easily be thought of as having some causal effect in self-esteem development.
Experiences that contribute to low self-esteem include being harshly criticized, being physically, sexually or emotionally abused, being ignored, ridiculed or teased or being expected to be "perfect" all the time.
During school-aged years, academic achievement is a significant contributor to self-esteem development. For example, they may not have academic achievements, or they live in a troubled environment outside of school.
Issues like the ones previously stated, can cause adolescents to doubt themselves. Social experiences are another important contributor to self-esteem. As children go through school, they begin to understand and recognize differences between themselves and their classmates. Using social comparisons, children assess whether they did better or worse than classmates in different activities. These comparisons play an important role in shaping the child's self-esteem and influence the positive or negative feelings they have about themselves.
Adolescents make appraisals of themselves based on their relationships with close friends. Social acceptance brings about confidence and produces high self-esteem, whereas rejection from peers and loneliness brings about self-doubts and produces low self-esteem. Adolescence shows an increase in self-esteem that continues to increase in young adulthood and middle age. High levels of mastery, low risk taking, and better health are ways to predict higher self-esteem.
In terms of personality, emotionally stable, extroverted, and conscientious individuals experience higher self-esteem. However, during old age, they experience a more rapid decline in self-esteem. Shame can be a contributor to those with problems of low self-esteem. A poor performance leads to higher responses of psychological states that indicate a threat to the social self namely a decrease in social self-esteem and an increase in shame.
There are three levels of self-evaluation development in relation to the real self, ideal self, and the dreaded self. The real, ideal, and dreaded selves develop in children in a sequential pattern on cognitive levels.
This development brings with it increasingly complicated and encompassing moral demands. This level is where individuals' self-esteems can suffer because they do not feel as though they are living up to certain expectations.
This feeling will moderately affect one's self-esteem with an even larger effect seen when individuals believe they are becoming their dreaded selves. People with a healthy level of self-esteem: . A person can have high self-esteem and hold it confidently where they do not need reassurance from others to maintain their positive self-view, whereas others with defensive high self-esteem may still report positive self-evaluations on the Rosenberg Scale, as all high self-esteem individuals do; however, their positive self-views are fragile and vulnerable to criticism.
Defensive high self-esteem individuals internalize subconscious self-doubts and insecurities, causing them to react very negatively to any criticism they may receive. There is a need for constant positive feedback from others for these individuals to maintain their feelings of self-worth.
The necessity of repeated praise can be associated with boastful, arrogant behavior or sometimes even aggressive and hostile feelings toward anyone who questions the individual's self-worth, an example of threatened egotism.
The Journal of Educational Psychology conducted a study in which they used a sample of Malaysian undergraduates participating in work integrated learning WIL programs across five public universities to test the relationship between self-esteem and other psychological attributes such as self-efficacy and self-confidence. The results demonstrated that self-esteem has a positive and significant relationship with self-confidence and self-efficacy since students with higher self-esteem had better performances at university than those with lower self-esteem.
It was concluded that higher education institutions and employers should emphasize the importance of undergraduates' self-esteem development. Implicit self-esteem refers to a person's disposition to evaluate themselves positively or negatively in a spontaneous, automatic, or unconscious manner. It contrasts with explicit self-esteem , which entails more conscious and reflective self-evaluation. Both explicit self-esteem and implicit self-esteem are subtypes of self-esteem proper. Narcissism is a disposition people may have that represents an excessive love for one's self.
It is characterized by an inflated view of self-worth. Individuals who score high on narcissism measures, Robert Raskin's 40 Item True or False Test , would likely select true to such statements as "If I ruled the world, it would be a much better place. Threatened egotism is characterized as a response to criticism that threatens the ego of narcissists; they often react in a hostile and aggressive manner.
Low self-esteem can result from various factors, including genetic factors, physical appearance or weight, mental health issues, socioeconomic status, significant emotional experiences, social stigma , peer pressure or bullying. A person with low self-esteem may show some of the following characteristics: . Individuals with low self-esteem tend to be critical of themselves. Some depend on the approval and praise of others when evaluating self-worth.
Others may measure their likability in terms of successes: others will accept themselves if they succeed but will not if they fail. This classification proposed by Martin Ross  distinguishes three states of self-esteem compared to the "feats" triumphs , honors , virtues and the "anti-feats" defeats , embarrassment , shame , etc. The individual does not regard themselves as valuable or lovable.
They may be overwhelmed by defeat, or shame, or see themselves as such, and they name their "anti-feat". For example, if they consider that being over a certain age is an anti-feat, they define themselves with the name of their anti-feat, and say, "I am old". They express actions and feelings such as pity, insulting themselves, and they may become paralyzed by their sadness. The individual has a generally positive self-image.
However, their self-esteem is also vulnerable to the perceived risk of an imminent anti-feat such as defeat, embarrassment, shame, discredit , consequently, they are often nervous and regularly use defense mechanisms. Although such individuals may outwardly exhibit great self-confidence, the underlying reality may be just the opposite: the apparent self-confidence is indicative of their heightened fear of anti-feats and the fragility of their self-esteem.
They may employ defense mechanisms, including attempting to lose at games and other competitions in order to protect their self-image by publicly dissociating themselves from a need to win, and asserting an independence from social acceptance which they may deeply desire.
Raw Materials: Selection, Specifications, and Certificate of Analysis
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- Посмотрите уран. Его сверхкритическую массу. - М-м… сто десять фунтов, - сказала Соши. - Сто десять? - оживился Джабба. - Сколько будет сто десять минус тридцать пять и две десятых.
Людские потоки из разных улиц сливались в одну черную реку, устремленную к распахнутым дверям Севильского собора. Беккер попробовал выбраться и свернуть на улицу Матеуса-Гаго, но понял, что находится в плену людского потока. Идти приходилось плечо к плечу, носок в пятку. У испанцев всегда было иное представление о плотности, чем у остального мира. Беккер оказался зажат между двумя полными женщинами с закрытыми глазами, предоставившими толпе нести их в собор. Они беззвучно молились, перебирая пальцами четки. Когда толпа приблизилась к мощным каменным стенам почти вплотную, Беккер снова попытался вырваться, но течение стало еще более интенсивным.
ГЛАВА 47 - Шифр ценой в миллиард долларов? - усмехнулась Мидж, столкнувшись с Бринкерхоффом в коридоре. - Ничего. - Клянусь, - сказал. Она смотрела на него с недоумением. - Надеюсь, это не уловка с целью заставить меня скинуть платье.
Я понимаю, но… - Сегодня у нас особый день - мы собирались отметить шесть месяцев. Надеюсь, ты помнишь, что мы помолвлены. - Сьюзан - вздохнул он - Я не могу сейчас об этом говорить, внизу ждет машина. Я позвоню и все объясню.
ТРАНСТЕКСТ устроил себе перерыв. - Перерыв? - Бринкерхофф не был в этом уверен. Он достаточно долго проработал бок о бок с директором и знал, что перерыв не относился к числу поощряемых им действий - особенно когда дело касалось ТРАНСТЕКСТА.
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Нужно быстро пройти в кабинет Стратмора, но, конечно, не чересчур быстро: Хейл не должен ничего заподозрить. Она уже была готова распахнуть дверь, как вдруг до нее донеслись какие-то звуки.