Mis And Dss Notes PdfBy Andreas H. In and pdf 03.05.2021 at 05:09 6 min read
File Name: mis and dss notes .zip
- Decision support system
- Types of Information System: TPS, DSS & Pyramid Diagram
- Decision Support System
- MIS-Full Notes.pdf
Connect with us to learn more. A Management Information System is an information system that evaluates, analyzes, and processes an organization's data to produce meaningful and useful information based on
Decision support system
Nowadays, some of the organizations use MIS to assist managers for decision making. This system is for use by transport planners and managers Louw et al, Power has stated that making decisions is an important part of working in business environment. Companies often make decisions regarding operational improvements or selecting new business opportunities for maximizing the company's profit. Companies develop a decision-making process based on individuals responsible for making decisions and the scope of the company's business operations.
A useful tool for making business decisions is a management information system MIS. Historically, the MIS was a manual process used to gather information and funnel it to individuals responsible for making decisions. Organization-wide information resourceThe MIS is an organization -wide effort to provide decision making process information.
The system is a formal commitment by executive to make the computer available to all managers. The MIS sets the stage for accomplishments in the other area, which is DSS, the virtual office and knowledge based systems.
Situation analysis, problem identification and understandingThe main idea behind the MIS is to keep a continuous supply of information flowing to the management. Afterward by data and information gathered from MIS system, make decisions. Decision Support System DSS A decision support system or DSS is a computer based system intended for use by a particular manager or usually a group of managers at any organizational level in making a decision in the process of solving a semi structured decision Figure 7.
The DSS produces output in the form of periodic or special report or the results of mathematical simulations Raymond, It is difficult to pinpoint that are completely structured or unstructured. The vast majorities are semi structured. This means that the DSS is aimed at the area where most semi structured decision is needed to be made.
Insert figure 7 here 8. The special report is prepared in response to unanticipated information need and takes form of database by users who use the query language of a DBMS or fourth generation language.
Mathematical models can be written in any procedural programming language. However, special model languages make this task easier and have the potential of doing a better job. In this particular situation, the term GDSS, or a group decision support system is used. Perhaps the decision makers represent a committee or a project team.
The group members communicate with one another both, directly and by means of the group ware. The reports writing software and mathematical model have always been regarded as necessary DSS ingredients.
As the DSS concept was broadened to provide support to two or more decision maker working together as a team or committee, the idea of special group oriented software or groupware, became a reality. Insert figure 8 here 9. DSS Characteristics Decision support system has a number of characteristics, which include following:-DSS provide support for decision maker mainly in semi structured and unstructured situations by bringing together human judgment and computerized information.
Such problem can not be solved can not be solved conveniently by other computerized systems, such as MIS. Many organizational problems involve group decision-making. The less structured problem frequently requires the involvement of several individuals from different departments and organizational levels. A DSS can also solve problems where a small amount of data is required. With this approach, separate functions of the DSS are placed in separate modules -program or subroutines-allowing efficient testing and implement of systems.
It also allows various modules to be used for multiple purposes in different systems. It has often been said that a picture is worth a thousand words. Today's decision support systems can help managers make attractive, informative graphical presentations on computer screens and on printed documents. Many of today's software packages can produce line drawing, pie chart, trend line and more. This graphical orientation can help decision makers a better understanding of the true situation in a given market place.
For smaller problems, DSS has the ability to find the best optimal situation. For more complex problems, heuristics are used. With heuristic, the computer system can determine a very good-but not necessarily the best-solution. This approach gives the decision maker a great deal of flexibility in getting computer support for decision making activities. In with" what -if "analysis, a manager can make changes to problem data the number of automobiles for next month and immediately see the impact on the requirement for subassemblies engines, windows, etc.
Stair, The role of the DSS in the process of decision makingPreviously it was mentioned that the MIS is best suited in identifying problems and helping managers understanding them to make suitable and correct decisions, but the main weakness of MIS is that it is not aimed at the specific need of the individual and group decision makers.
Very often the MIS does not provide exactly the information that is needed to solve problems for individual and group decision making. DSS is tailored to the specific need of the individual and group managers. Therefore, the DSS can extend this support through the remaining steps in objective and criteria setting, alternative search, alternative evaluation, making the decision and decision review of the decision making.
The other researches such as the following confirm this idea: Uma has stated that a Decision Support System is an integrated set of computer tools allowing a decision maker to interact directly with computer to retrieve information useful in making semi structured and unstructured decisions. Example of this decisions include such things as merger and acquisition decisions, plant expansion, new product decisions portfolio management and marketing decisions.
Nokhbatolfoghahaayee et al have introduced a fuzzy decision support system FDSS with a new decision making structure, which can be applied to manage the crisis conditions in any large scale systems with many parameters. After receiving both functional variables of the system and fault signals, the FDSS makes proper decisions to make up and repair the distorted situation and the affected elements of the network according to its data base established through experience gathered from expert managers and decision models properly developed.
These decisions are expressed in the form of some scenarios with different desirability degrees, which are determined by some properly developed fuzzy multi-criteria decision making methods, helping the manager choose the best one according to his discretion.
Alonso et al have presented an implemented web based consensus support system that is able to help, or even replace, the moderator in a consensus process where experts are allowed to provide their preferences using one of many types fuzzy, linguistic and multi-granular linguistic of incomplete preference relations.
These studies show the important and role of MIS during managers' decision making process. DiscussionManagers in all levels of organization hierarchy need precise and suitable data and information to make decisions that increase organizational performance. Such concept suggests an informational need of supervisory level is different from top level. At the same time the type of information also at each level is different.
At lower level, supervisors need defined, clear, precise, quantifiable and internal organizational information but at the top level a manager needs undefined, future oriented, infrequent, summarized, relatively, non quantifiable and mostly external information.
Such concept is illustrated in Figure 9. Quantifiable information could be gathered from external environment if suitable. And some of organization environment elements such as socio-cultural factors like birth rate, population rate, competitor's share of market and so on could be quantifiable data and be considered and used it the process of top level management decision making process.
Insert figure 9 here In general, different kinds of data and information are suitable for decision-making in different levels of organizational hierarchy and require different information system to be placed. Such system could have explicit effect on each step of decision process in solving problems. At the same time each information system can not fulfill complete information needs of each level, but rather different information systems if integrated in different levels could satisfy information needs of a level and at the same time fulfill part of information needs of other levels.
For example TPS fulfills the lower level needs of an organization but MIS furnishes data and information for lower and middle level management needs Note 1 On the other hand, DSS furnishes information for middle level and higher level of organizational hierarchy and ES fulfills only higher level managerial needs.
Clearly by segregating each IS, its particular function could be recognized and it's overlapping distinguished. The role of different information systems is depicted in Figure Insert figure 10 here The perceived concepts, which are based on the role of MIS and DSS in the decision making process, especially with emphasize on MIS and DSS which provide information services for middle and higher level managers in the process of decision making are integrated in Figure It was found that MIS is best suited to identify problems and help management to understand them to make suitable decisions.
At the same time, MIS is not aimed to help particular and specific need of the individual and group decision making. On the other hand DSS are tailored to the specific need of individual and group managers.
Therefore, it could be concluded, that DSS can extend its support to the same steps of decision making process and has more roles in decision-making and problem solving than MIS. Due to some practical limitations, may be some of steps of decision making process to be chosen and the others to be removed. It is important to consider which ones are preferred to the other ones. In future works can study on the role of other information systems for managers' decision making and comparative it to DSS and MIS.
Simon, H. Information Systems for Management. Notes Note 1. Reader are aware of this concept that from MIS has two different meanings are extracted. One is an information system which is in the layer of supervisory and middle level management and the other refers to all the layers of IS from lower to the top level of organizational hierarchy.
Note 2. Programmd decisions are similar to structured decisions and non-programmed decisions are equal to unstructured decisions. Situational AnalysisIs the problem stated clearly? Do group member understand what they will work on? By what criteria will decision-making be judged? Objective SettingAre those individual most involved in the problem also involved in the decision-making?
Has complete information been sought? Are information holders involved in the decision-making?
Types of Information System: TPS, DSS & Pyramid Diagram
A decision support system DSS is an interactive computer-based information system that, like MIS also serves at the management level of an organization. However, in contrast to MIS that processes data , it processes information to support the decision making process of managers. It provides middle managers with the information that enables them to make intelligent decisions. A DSS in bank, for example, can enable a manger to analyze the changing trends in deposits and loans in order to ascertain the yearly targets. Generally, they help managers to make semi-structured decisions, the solution to which can be arrived at logically. However, sometimes, they can also help in taking complex decisions.
DSS is an information system application that helps in decision-making. DSS is used in planning and analyzing alternatives. DSS differs from most traditional information system in that each DSS is distinct from the other information system and is specifically made for managers. A DSS is prepared for a specific managerial task and special problem and thus its use is limited to that problem. Decision support systems tend to be designed to serve management control level and strategic planning level managers. The elements of DSS include a database , a model base and a software providing interactive dialogue facility for a manager.
Decision Support System
A typical organization is divided into operational, middle, and upper level. The information requirements for users at each level differ. Towards that end, there are number of information systems that support each level in an organization. This tutorial will explore the different types of information systems, the organizational level that uses them and the characteristics of the particular information system.
Decision Support System DSS is an interactive, flexible computer based information system or sub-system intended to help decision makers use communication technologies, data, documents to identify and solve problems, complete decision process tasks and make decision. These are explained as following below. Management Information System MIS is a computer based system that makes information available to users with similar needs. Writing code in comment? Please use ide.
The core courses in an MBA program cover various areas of business such as accounting, finance, marketing, human resources, operations, and statistics etc.
A decision support system DSS is an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs serve the management, operations and planning levels of an organization usually mid and higher management and help people make decisions about problems that may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance—i. Decision support systems can be either fully computerized or human-powered, or a combination of both. DSSs include knowledge-based systems. A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from a combination of raw data, documents, and personal knowledge, or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions. The concept of decision support has evolved mainly from the theoretical studies of organizational decision making done at the Carnegie Institute of Technology during the late s and early s, and the implementation work done in the s.
Kusumlata Bhargava Deptt. While every effort is taken to avoid errors or omissions in this Publication, any mistake or omission that may have crept in is not intentional. It may be taken note of that neither the publisher nor the author will be responsible for any damage or loss of any kind arising to anyone in any manner on account of such errors and omissions. The book has been written keeping in mind the general weakness in understanding the fundamental concepts of the topics. The book is self-explanatory and adopts the Teach Yourself style. It is based on question-answer pattern. The language of book is quite easy and understandable based on scientific approach.
COM/ MBA NOTES/ DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS & MANAGEMENT Management Information System (MIS): Elements, Objectives and Limitations.
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