Global Atlas Of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention And Control Pdf


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Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control.

Metrics details. Cardiovascular diseases CVDs are considered the number one cause of death worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries, Bolivia included. Lack of reliable estimates of risk factor distribution can lead to delay in implementation of evidence-based interventions.

However, little is known about the prevalence of risk factors in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of preventable risk factors associated with CVDs and to identify the demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with them in Cochabamba, Bolivia. The prevalence of relevant behavioural risk factors and anthropometric measures were obtained. The socio-demographic variables included were age, ethnicity, level of education, occupation, place of residence, and marital status.

More than half The prevalence of behavioural risk factors were: current smoking, The prevalence of overweight was Indigenous populations and those living in the Andean region showed in general a lower prevalence of most of the risk factors evaluated. We provide the first CVD risk factor profile of people living in Cochabamba, Bolivia, using a standardized methodology. Overall, findings suggest that the prevalence of CVD risk factors in Cochabamba is high. This result highlights the need for interventions to improve early diagnosis, monitoring, management, and especially prevention of these risk factors.

Peer Review reports. The worldwide epidemic of non-communicable diseases NCD is well known, with cardiovascular diseases CVDs the most frequent and the number one cause of death in the world [ 1 , 2 ].

The magnitude of these diseases is higher in low- and middle-income countries [ 3 ], representing Evidence worldwide suggests that a large proportion of CVD cases can be prevented if risk factors are controlled [ 3 , 5 ].

These risk factors are modifiable, and thus their continuing surveillance is fundamental for CVD control [ 5 , 7 ]. However, these figures are only estimates, and more accurate information is needed to support decision making. Indeed, the lack of accurate information about CVD prevalence and associated risk factors is one of the major difficulties for the implementation of preventive local health programs in the country [ 7 , 9 ].

The only available data comes from the National Health Information System NHIS , which has a registration bias, since it only captures patients who come to the public health system, leaving aside users of private health care, or people who have not accessed the health care system [ 9 ].

Since the NHIS prioritizes infectious diseases and maternal and child health, only information regarding diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cancer any type , and rheumatoid arthritis is collected [ 9 ]. Moreover, the planning units of the Departmental Health Services and municipal governments do not have estimates of the magnitude of the problem locally, and therefore no prioritized interventions based on their own population characteristics can be properly implemented [ 9 , 10 , 11 ].

The existing studies in Bolivia have reported a high prevalence of obesity Nevertheless, these studies were focused on a limited number of risk factors, several were hospital-based, and none of them used the World Health Organization WHO STEPS methodology Surveillance of Noncommunicable Diseases , so that they lacked a comprehensive picture of current cardiovascular and behavioural risk factors at the population level.

This study aimed to assess the prevalence of preventable risk factors associated with CVDs and to identify the demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with them by using the STEPS approach in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

The development of a risk factor profile for CVDs will provide key information required for planning prevention and control activities as well as to help predict the future burden of disease. Cochabamba is one of the nine departments of Bolivia, located in the centre of the Andes mountain range.

In , demographic data indicated that 1. A proportionate allocation as per census distribution in all municipalities was adopted. A list of 47 municipalities, primary health care service areas PHCSAs , and communities comprised our sampling frame. In a first stage, the intervention area of the primary health care centres was divided into sub-areas with a similar population size proportional to the sample size of each PHCSA. In a second stage, a population sampling unit PSU either village, district, or neighbourhood, following the official classification for Bolivia was randomly selected from each sub-area.

In the final stage, households were randomly selected within each PSU using a systematic random sampling procedure. One inclusion criterion considered for a person to be selected was to have been living in the community for at least the last six months prior to the survey. This criterion was applied due to the great social and geographical mobility that characterizes the population of rural areas of the country. Critically ill patients, pregnant women, patients with ascites, and those who did not consent were excluded.

The sample of eligible subjects consisted of 12, persons, of whom The final sample used for analysis comprised 10, individuals. The data collection procedure was based on the Pan American version V2. The STEPS approach follows three stages: a Step 1 uses a questionnaire to collect demographic and lifestyle data; b Step 2 involves measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and waist circumference; and c Step 3 uses biochemical assessments.

Some items in the Step 1 questionnaire were reformulated to use Bolivian expressions, and also new contextual questions were added e. All interviewers underwent training for two days, which covered the three stages of STEPS, including classroom interactive sessions and skill development for interviews and field visits. Pilot testing for applying the instrument for Steps 1 and 2 pretested was conducted with the same staff, who helped to develop an application guide.

In Step 1, a structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews. Physical activity was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire format part of the STEPS tool , and information was gathered about four different aspects: physical activity at the workplace, during recreation time, while travelling, and during resting time.

Based on the Metabolic Equivalent of Task MET , a value less than MET-minutes per week was classified as low physical activity, and values higher than MET-minutes per week were classified as appropriate [ 7 , 18 ]. In Step 2, measurements were done using calibrated and standardized instruments. Physical measurements included weight in bare feet without heavy clothing, in consideration of cultural principles and height in bare feet and without headwear ; with this data, the Body Mass Index BMI was calculated, and the participants were classified as overweight BMI between 25 and Blood pressure was measured at the midpoint of both arms after participants had rested for at least five minutes.

Two blood pressure readings were obtained from all participants. The mean of all measures was used, based on the recommendations of the WHO research protocol. All instruments were standardized before the examination, and the scales were zero calibrated routinely during the study period. Step 3 was performed only in the capital city, and results have not been included in this manuscript. Questionnaires with missing or conflicting information were sent back to be rechecked and completed, and the research team conducted a random verification of the collected data through telephone calls by selecting one survey for every participants.

Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated for each CVD risk factor, through generalized linear models with a binomial distribution and a log link. For the adjusted model, we include all covariates simultaneously in the model. The majority of the participants were living in the Central Most of the study population Smoking prevalence overall was Men The overall prevalence of current alcohol consumption was Low levels of fruit and vegetable intake were present in A similar pattern was observed regarding the low levels of physical activity, with an overall prevalence of Overweight and obesity were observed in Prevalence of overweight was similar among women and men.

Singles and students had the lowest prevalence Unlike overweight, obesity was more prevalent in women The lowest prevalence was found among those who lived in the Andean region 7. Central obesity abdominal obesity was present in The Andean region presented a low prevalence Table 2. The overall prevalence of raised blood pressure was The adjusted prevalence ratios are presented in the Table 3. After adjustment, men were found to have significantly higher risk of smoking PR: 6.

As age increased, there was also a significantly increased risk of consuming alcohol PR: 1. Conversely, with increased age there was a decreased risk of smoking and alcohol consumption Table 3. People living in the tropics area had significantly higher risk of being a smoker PR: 1.

Compared to mestizos and whites, the indigenous participants had significantly higher risk of having a low intake of fruits and vegetables PR: 1. With lower education level, there also was a significantly decreased risk of being a smoker PR: 0. However, people without formal schooling had a higher risk of having a low intake of fruits and vegetables PR: 1.

Those who were currently married or in cohabitation had significantly higher risk of being an alcohol consumer PR: 1. All labour market position categories showed significantly higher risk of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity, and raised blood pressure, compared to students.

On the other hand, the risk of low level of physical activity was significantly lower in self-employees PR: 0. It provides current and accurate information about the prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors and their social determinants.

Our findings revealed that Cochabamba has a high prevalence of CVD risk factors, with a significant variation among the different socio-demographic groups. Indigenous populations and those living in the Andean region showed in general a lower prevalence for most of the risk factors evaluated. Smoking was higher among men However, exceptions have been found in Argentina men: Our study also revealed a higher smoking prevalence related to increases in age and education, and among employed and single individuals, which is similar to the findings of the tobacco use survey in Central Asia and Latin America [ 23 ].

No comparable information exists about smoking in relation to ethnicity in LA; however, the low prevalence of smoking observed among indigenous populations Quechua and Aymara in our study could be explained by the common habit of chewing coca leaves [ 24 , 25 ] among Andean indigenous communities.

Traditionally, the coca leaves are said to have medicinal qualities and to provide energy [ 26 ], which is why they are used as a stimulant, especially among indigenous manual workers, including farmers and mine workers. Other factors explaining the low prevalence of smoking among indigenous people could be their low purchasing power and difficult access to cigarettes in rural areas [ 27 ]. The prevalence of alcohol consumption observed in Cochabamba was higher than those reported by other STEPS surveys worldwide [ 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ].

However, the average amount of alcohol consumed in Bolivia 5. Similar to our findings, other Latin-American studies have found a higher prevalence of alcohol use among men compared to women [ 36 , 37 ], and in older age groups [ 38 ]. In Bolivia, previous studies have also found that alcohol consumption increases with age and has a high correlation with family abuse and poor school performance [ 39 , 40 , 41 ].

The lowest prevalence among indigenous people and those who live in the Andean region could be the result of disallowing alcohol sales and increasing the intolerance for drunken behaviour outdoors, as part of moral regulations introduced by evangelical movements in this population since the s [ 42 , 43 ].

Global Atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control

Despite huge advances in cardiovascular medicine, cardiovascular disease CVD remains the world's biggest killer. To better understand why this is the case and how we can reduce CVD mortality, the ESC collects cardiovascular data from across its 57 members countries through its 'Atlas of Cardiology'. This unique compendium underlines major healthcare gaps and inequalities and provides robust data for budget owners and decision-makers who can advance population health at a European level. In order to complement the compendium by adding statistics from different sub-specialties, the ESC has also added heart failure and interventional data, with the help of the Heart Failure Association and the European Association for Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions. This booklet is essential reading for anyone involved in healthcare policy and budget allocation. The five infographics in the series "Cardiovascular Realities in Europe" present key findings, revealing wide gender and geographic disparities and inequalities.

Cardiovascular disease CVD is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide except Africa. There are many cardiovascular diseases involving the blood vessels. They are known as vascular diseases.

Metrics details. Cardiovascular diseases CVDs are considered the number one cause of death worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries, Bolivia included. Lack of reliable estimates of risk factor distribution can lead to delay in implementation of evidence-based interventions. However, little is known about the prevalence of risk factors in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of preventable risk factors associated with CVDs and to identify the demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with them in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

ESC Atlas of Cardiology

Search this site. Addenda do dziejow oswiaty PDF. Agenda Toma el control PDF. Allergies PDF.

Check out our interactive infographic to see progress toward the Heart Disease and Stroke objectives and other Healthy People topic areas. Improve cardiovascular health and quality of life through prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors for heart attack and stroke; early identification and treatment of heart attacks and strokes; prevention of repeat cardiovascular events; and reduction in deaths from cardiovascular disease. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Over time, these risk factors cause changes in the heart and blood vessels that can lead to heart attacks, heart failure, and strokes.

ESC Atlas of Cardiology

National Library of Australia. Search the catalogue for collection items held by the National Library of Australia. Mendis, Shanthi. Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control. Also available online.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Corpus ID: Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control. Mendis and P.

Часть задания заключалась в немедленном уведомлении. Но сообщать имена жертв… с точки зрения человека в очках в металлической оправе, это было признаком особой элегантности стиля. Его пальцы снова задвигались, приводя в действие сотовый модем, и перед глазами появилось: СООБЩЕНИЕ ОТПРАВЛЕНО ГЛАВА 26 Сидя на скамейке напротив городской больницы, Беккер думал о том, что делать. Звонки в агентства услуг сопровождения ничего не дали. Коммандер, недовольный необходимостью говорить по линии, не защищенной от прослушивания, попросил Дэвида не звонить, пока кольцо не окажется в его руках.


Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control / edited by: Shanthi Mendis [‎et al.]‎. Thumbnail. View/Open. _rethinkingafricancollections.org (‎​Mb).


У входа стоял криптограф Грег Хейл. Это был высокий мужчина крепкого сложения с густыми светлыми волосами и глубокой ямкой на подбородке. Он отличался громким голосом и безвкусно-крикливой манерой одеваться. Коллеги-криптографы прозвали его Галит - таково научное название каменной соли.

Собор был уже совсем рядом, он это чувствовал. Толпа стала еще плотнее, а улица шире. Они двигались уже не по узкому боковому притоку, а по главному руслу.

Теперь, считали они, им уже нечего было опасаться, представ перед Большим жюри, услышать собственный записанный на пленку голос как доказательство давно забытого телефонного разговора, перехваченного спутником АНБ. Никогда еще получение разведывательной информации не было столь легким делом. Шифры, перехваченные АНБ, вводились в ТРАНСТЕКСТ и через несколько минуты выплевывались из машины в виде открытого текста.

 Туннельный блок наполовину уничтожен! - крикнул техник. На ВР туча из черных нитей все глубже вгрызалась в оставшиеся щиты.

Переступив порог, она вовремя успела ухватиться за дверную раму и лишь благодаря этому удержалась на ногах: лестница исчезла, превратившись в искореженный раскаленный металл. Сьюзан в ужасе оглядела шифровалку, превратившуюся в море огня. Расплавленные остатки миллионов кремниевых чипов извергались из ТРАНСТЕКСТА подобно вулканической лаве, густой едкий дым поднимался кверху. Она узнала этот запах, запах плавящегося кремния, запах смертельного яда.

Ему на руку была даже конструкция башни: лестница выходила на видовую площадку с юго-западной стороны, и Халохот мог стрелять напрямую с любой точки, не оставляя Беккеру возможности оказаться у него за спиной, В довершение всего Халохот двигался от темноты к свету. Расстрельная камера, мысленно усмехнулся. Халохот оценил расстояние до входа. Семь ступеней. Он мысленно прорепетировал предстоящее убийство.

ГЛАВА 63 Новообретенная веспа Дэвида Беккера преодолевала последние метры до Aeropuerto de Sevilla. Костяшки его пальцев, всю дорогу судорожно сжимавших руль, побелели. Часы показывали два часа с минутами по местному времени.

Cardiovascular disease

Сьюзан, не слушая его, повернулась к Соши. - Сколько там этих сироток? - спросила .

Тогда почему они послали не профессионального агента, а университетского преподавателя. Выйдя из зоны видимости бармена, Беккер вылил остатки напитка в цветочный горшок. От водки у него появилось легкое головокружение.

Цепная мутация, которую вы обнаружили в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, является частью этой диагностики. Она там, потому что я ее туда запустил. Сквозь строй не позволял мне загрузить этот файл, поэтому я обошел фильтры.  - Глаза коммандера, сузившись, пристально смотрели на Чатрукьяна.  - Ну, что еще - до того как вы отправитесь домой.

Все, кто имел отношение к криптографии, знали, что о АНБ собраны лучшие криптографические умы нашей планеты. Каждую весну, когда частные фирмы начинают охоту за талантливой молодежью, соблазняя ее неприлично высокими окладами и фондовыми опционами в придачу, АНБ внимательно наблюдает за этим, выделяет наиболее подходящих и удваивает предлагаемую сумму. АНБ покупает все, что ему требуется. Дрожа от нетерпения, Сьюзан вылетела в Вашингтон. В международном аэропорту Далласа девушку встретил шофер АНБ, доставивший ее в Форт-Мид.

4 Comments

Cid S.
19.05.2021 at 05:38 - Reply

This atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control is a response to the need for increased Global atlas on CVD prevention and control [pdf Mb].

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Kari G.
27.05.2021 at 07:54 - Reply

IV Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Diseases Prevention and Control. Section C – Prevention and control of CVDs: Policies, strategies and interventions.

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