Types Of Cast Iron And Their Properties Pdf

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The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon C ranging from 1.

Classification of Cast Iron

As cast irons are relatively inexpensive, very easily cast into complex shapes and readily machined, they are an important engineering and structural group of materials. Unfortunately not all grades are weldable and special precautions are normally required even with the so-called weldable grades. Cast irons can be conveniently grouped according to their structure which influences their mechanical properties and weldability; the main groups of general engineering cast irons are shown in Fig. Grey cast irons contain 2. Their structure consists of branched and interconnected graphite flakes in a matrix which is pearlite, ferrite or a mixture of the two Fig. The graphite flakes form planes of weakness and so strength and toughness are inferior to those of structural steels. The mechanical properties of grey irons can be greatly improved if the graphite shape is modified to eliminate planes of weakness.

Cast iron is a ferrous alloy that is made by re-melting pig iron in a capola furnace until it liquefies. The molten iron is poured into molds or casts to produce casting iron products of the required dimensions. Based on the application of cast iron, the alloying elements added to the furnace differ. The commonly added alloy elements are carbon followed by silicon. The other alloying elements added are chromium, molybdenum, copper, titanium, vanadium, etc. Based on the alloying elements added, the variation in the solidification of the cast iron and heat treatment used, the microstructure of the cast iron can vary.

In this article, you learn what is cast iron and 7 different types of cast iron, properties, application, advantages and more. The cast iron is obtained by re-melting pig iron and with coke and limestone in a furnace known as a cupola. It is an alloy of iron and carbon. The carbon contents in cast iron differ from 1. Also, it contains a very small amount of silicon, sulphur, manganese and phosphorus. Following are the important properties of cast iron which make it a valuable material for engineering purpose. The grey colour is due to the fact that carbon is present as free graphite.

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It has got its name due to its excellent casting qualities. It is hard and brittle. There is a basic difference between cast iron and steel. In the above table you can find the composition of different types of cast irons.

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Cast Iron: Types, Properties, Effects of Impurities and More


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White Cast Iron (combined carbon Fe. Malleable Cast Iron (free carbon as irregular. Chilled Cast Iron (white cast iron at the surface. Grey Cast Iron (Flake Graphite) Spheroidal Graphite (SG) / Ductile Cast Iron / Alloy Cast Iron.

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