Care And Management Of Pregnant Cow Pdf


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29.05.2021 at 04:29
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care and management of pregnant cow pdf

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Dairy cattle

Over-fat pregnant cows provided with insufficient food during the last two months of pregnancy can develop the disease which is similar to pregnancy toxaemia twin lamb disease of sheep. Deprivation of feed in fat beef cattle causes the movement of large amounts of fat from body stores to the liver. Fat pregnant cows, particularly those carrying twin calves, are very susceptible to pregnancy toxaemia.

The disease most commonly occurs in cows that are in the last two months of pregnancy or that have just calved. Changing the diet of pregnant beef cows from a good quality, to a poor quality diet in an attempt to reduce body weight and enhance ease of calving may result in in pregnancy toxaemia.

In a pregnant cow there is a large demand for glucose by the developing calf in the last few weeks before birth. There is even greater demand on a cow carrying twins. If only low-quality fibrous diets, such as straw and stubble are available, the cow is unable to meet this demand for glucose.

As a result, the fat accumulates in the liver, the liver becomes enlarged, pale yellow and fatty. Cows of all ages are at risk. Since the problem is associated with inadequate nutrition, a significant portion a herd can be affected.

Pregnancy toxaemia affects cattle that were in reasonable body condition. Pregnant beef cows which are in thin body condition on poor pasture can become emaciated and eventually recumbent and die of starvation, but they do not develop pregnancy toxaemia. Pregnancy toxaemia can be prevented by ensuring that beef cows are adequately nourished in the eight weeks before calving. Cows should not be over-fat during pregnancy. Even after one or two cows are affected, further cases can be prevented by providing high quality supplementary feed.

If pregnancy toxaemia occurs, remaining cows should be sorted into groups corresponding to body condition and fed accordingly. The first signs are easily overlooked. Cows in the early stages stop eating and appear dull and depressed. They often isolate themselves from the rest of the herd and do not forage for feed.

Some cows, particularly those closer to calving, are unsteady on their feet, maybe aggressive, restless and reluctant to enter yards or a crush. Some will even charge at moving objects.

In general, cows which continue to eat will recover if given some supportive treatment and good quality feed. Cows which stop eating will eventually die. Veterinary treatment is aimed at restoring the energy balances in the cow. The longer treatment is delayed, the less effective it will be.

The cause of pregnancy toxaemia In a pregnant cow there is a large demand for glucose by the developing calf in the last few weeks before birth. All pregnant cows are at risk Cows of all ages are at risk. Preventing Pregnancy toxaemia Pregnancy toxaemia can be prevented by ensuring that beef cows are adequately nourished in the eight weeks before calving.

At post mortem the liver is enlarged, pale yellow and greasy. Treating pregnancy toxaemia In general, cows which continue to eat will recover if given some supportive treatment and good quality feed. Cows that have been down for more than a day usually die.

Pregnancy Determination in Cattle

Calf losses at calving time are often a result of dystocia difficult calving problems. Many of these losses occur to calves born to first calf heifers and can be prevented if the heifers and cows are watched closely and the dystocia problems detected and corrected early. A veterinarian should handle serious and complicated calving problems. Ranchers must use good judgment in their decisions as to which problems will require professional help, and the earlier help is sought the greater the survival rate of both cow and calf. If the calf is normally presented Figure 1 and the pelvic area is large enough, the vast majority of animals will give birth without assistance.

Before Parturition During Parturition. Care with regards to feeding. Even though the Parturition is a normal physiological process, it requires to take due care at all stages of Parturition by manager of the herd. Before Parturition. To avoid it, provide enough minerals especially calcium by bone meal in daily diet. Give large doses of Vitamin D about a week period to calving.

Pregnancy determination is recommended to maximize breeding efficiency. In beef herds, the breeding season natural service or AI is ideally fixed at a length of 60—70 days. This gives the average cow two or three services to conceive. Cows that are not pregnant or were bred late should be identified; if kept in the herd, they will calve later in the season. Maintenance costs are significant, although they vary widely by farm and by year. Pregnancy determination of beef cows should be done shortly after the breeding season is over eg, 45—60 days ; if the breeding season starts June 1 and ends early in August, it can be done during late September while the cows still have plenty of flesh from summer pasture.

Pregnancy toxaemia in cows

Dairy cattle also called dairy cows are female cattle bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk , from which dairy products are made. Dairy cows generally are of the species Bos taurus. Historically, there was little distinction between dairy cattle and beef cattle , with the same stock often being used for both meat and milk production.

Over-fat pregnant cows provided with insufficient food during the last two months of pregnancy can develop the disease which is similar to pregnancy toxaemia twin lamb disease of sheep. Deprivation of feed in fat beef cattle causes the movement of large amounts of fat from body stores to the liver.

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Если бы он тогда знал… ГЛАВА 9 Техник систем безопасности Фил Чатрукьян собирался заглянуть в шифровалку на минуту-другую - только для того, чтобы взять забытые накануне бумаги. Но вышло. Пройдя помещение шифровалки и зайдя в лабораторию систем безопасности, он сразу почувствовал что-то неладное. Компьютер, который постоянно отслеживал работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА, оказался выключен, вокруг не было ни души. - Эй! - крикнул Чатрукьян. Ответа не последовало. В лаборатории царил образцовый порядок, словно здесь никто не появлялся уже много часов.

За несколько лет работы ТРАНСТЕКСТА ничего подобного не случалось. Перегрелся, подумал. Интересно, почему Стратмор его до сих пор не отключил. Ему понадобилось всего несколько мгновений, чтобы принять решение. Фонтейн схватил со стола заседаний трубку внутреннего телефона и набрал номер шифровалки. В трубке послышались короткие гудки. В сердцах он швырнул трубку на рычаг.

Тишина. Наверное, Меган, подумал. У нее оставалось целых пять часов до рейса, и она сказала, что попытается отмыть руку. - Меган? - позвал он и постучал. Никто не ответил, и Беккер толкнул дверь.  - Здесь есть кто-нибудь? - Он вошел. Похоже, никого.

Средний.

Беккер понял, что перегнул палку. Он нервно оглядел коридор. Его уже выставили сегодня из больницы, и он не хотел, чтобы это случилось еще. - Nimm deinen FuB weg! - прорычал немец.  - Уберите ногу.

1 Comments

Ben Z.
04.06.2021 at 09:08 - Reply

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