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- Piezoelectric materials for sustainable building structures: Fundamentals and applications
- Piezoelectric Materials for Medical Applications
- The Effects of Piezoelectricity Smart Material
Piezoelectric materials for sustainable building structures: Fundamentals and applications
This chapter describes the history and development strategy of piezoelectric materials for medical applications. It covers the piezoelectric properties of materials found inside the human body including blood vessels, skin, and bones as well as how the piezoelectricity innate in those materials aids in disease treatment. It also covers piezoelectric materials and their use in medical implants by explaining how piezoelectric materials can be used as sensors and can emulate natural materials.
Finally, the possibility of using piezoelectric materials to design medical equipment and how current models can be improved by further research is explored. This review is intended to provide greater understanding of how important piezoelectricity is to the medical industry by describing the challenges and opportunities regarding its future development. Piezoelectricity - Organic and Inorganic Materials and Applications. Piezoelectricity is a quality of material asymmetry that leads to the conversion of electric signals into physical deformation and conversely physical deformation into electric signal.
An applied pressure causes movement of the dipole moment within the material, and a flow of charges if crystals are aligned [ 1 ]. This makes piezoelectricity useful for a variety of industry purposes, particularly those related to vibrational generation and actuation. Commercialized applications for piezoelectricity include timekeeping using quartz resonance, microphones, radio antenna oscillators, speakers, hydrophones, and fuel injection [ 2 , 3 ].
More experimental technology includes energy harvesting and electronic sensing [ 2 ]. The most commonly used ceramic piezoelectric material is lead zirconium titanate PZT , because its physical properties can be tailored by composition, it has a high piezoelectric coefficient, and it is cheap to manufacture [ 4 ].
A wide variety of composites and nanostructure materials have also been developed and can be fabricated as thin films, discs, or stacked sheets [ 2 , 3 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ].
In the case of biomedical engineering, many conventional means of using piezoelectric devices are not applicable because of the structure of biological systems. Issues such as size limitations, biological compatibility, and flexibility have led to investigation into polymer, composite, nanostructured, and lead-free piezoelectric materials. One way to develop biomedical devices is to look at the piezoelectric structures inside the body and how they can be emulated to develop piezoelectric medical technology.
In the first section of this book, we discuss piezoelectric materials present in the body. Then we describe how piezoelectric materials can be used for diagnosing illnesses and providing medical treatment. Our purpose is to inform the readers of challenges and different approaches applicable to developing a wide variety of medical technology.
There are many reviews which cover subsections of biological piezoelectric materials; these reviews explain topics such as piezoelectricity in bone [ 14 ] or biopolymers [ 15 ].
However, we seek to present a broader overview of the topic and how it can be used to develop technology.
Much of the original work on discovering piezoelectricity in the body was done by Eiichi Fukada [ 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ]. His work showed the presence of piezoelectricity in bone, aorta, muscles, tendons, and intestines [ 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ]. The organic piezoelectric effects in the human body are attributed to the lack of symmetry in most biological molecules, which may make piezoelectricity a fundamental biological property [ 19 ]. In particular, proteins seem to drive the piezoelectric qualities of most organs.
The basic building blocks of proteins within the human body are amino acids. These make up molecules such as collagen, keratin, and elastin which are highly prevalent in the organs examined by Fukada and other researchers [ 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ]. Amino acids in pure form have their own piezoelectric properties due to the presence of dipoles derived from the polar side groups seen in Figure 1. It is the reorientation and change in dipole moments in biological macromolecules under stress that gives them piezoelectric properties [ 20 , 21 ].
Most racemic, or DL mixtures of amino acids do not show piezoelectric properties because their crystal forms are centrosymmetric [ 23 ]. Other biological piezoelectric materials include polymeric L-lactic acid, DNA, and the M13 bacteriophage [ 25 , 26 , 27 ]. Like amino acids, the piezoelectric properties of lactic acid come from the carbon—oxygen double bond [ 25 ]. This demonstrates the importance of bonding, structure, and experimental conditions when determining piezoelectric properties.
Like the bacteriophage, many organs contain macromolecules which give them piezoelectric properties. Organs with piezoelectric properties can be viewed as amorphous organic material containing structured fibers which give them their piezoelectric properties [ 19 , 28 ]. Often these fibrils will grow in a helix shape, preventing them from having centrosymmetric symmetry [ 29 ].
The overall strength of the piezoelectric effect will depend on the ordering, quantity or composition of these fibers. Bones and tendons have hexagonal symmetry and contain the following piezoelectric constant d ij in the form of Eq. For example, examination of the epidermis, horny layer, and dermis of the skin revealed that each layer had its own piezoelectric coefficient, the highest being the horny layer.
The structure of the keratin horny layer simplified its ability to produce piezoelectric tensors, giving them the form of Eq. The values of piezoelectric coefficients varied based on temperature; however, the highest were seen in the horny layer, on the order of 0. The lack of consistency in these measurements is due to the variety in how the molecules were ordered in each sample [ 28 ].
Similarly, piezoresponse force measurements PFM studies of collagen proved that collagen is the main source of piezoelectricity in the bone and reveal different ordering of collagen fibers results in different piezoresponses, as seen in Figure 2 [ 32 ]. In collagen, there are alternating sections of overlap and gap regions. The collagen fibers are arranged in a staggered way that result in the gap region having one less microfiber.
In addition, the molecules in the gap region have less uniform symmetry, and therefore that region does not have as high of a piezoresponse [ 32 ]. These two studies indicate the piezoelectric response is not merely dependent on the molecular structure, but the structure of the entire organ.
Table 1 gives a description of organs with tested piezoelectric properties and their attributed molecule. The images show a the topology of the collagen and b the piezoresponse force microscopy PFM image where the collagen can be distinguished from the surrounding tissues and how the gap and overlap regions differ in piezoelectric response.
Despite many measurements, it is sometimes difficult for the scientific community to come to a consensus on the exact nature and relevance of in situ piezoelectric characteristics. For example, in the case of bone, two groups found contradicting results on the dependency of piezoelectricity in terms of hydration [ 14 , 37 ].
Some studies on the aorta indicate that it has piezoelectric properties, though results were varied. Two studies, taken over forty years apart showed different orders of magnitude for the studied properties [ 17 , 38 ]. A lab attempting to verify either of these studies found that there was no piezoelectric response from the aorta [ 39 ]. However, later research proved streaming potentials, fluid and ions driven by mechanical loading, may have a greater impact in determining bone properties [ 41 ].
However, Ahn et al. Furthermore, the generation of electric fields has been shown to increase bone healing during fracture [ 42 , 43 ]. Even if the exact purpose for piezoelectric properties in the body is not known, they still can be used for developing biomedical solutions on both microscopic and macroscopic levels.
For example, knowing that amino acids and macromolecules composed of them have piezoelectric properties has inspired the use of biomaterials for human sensors [ 44 ]. Using peptides to build piezoelectric sensors eliminates the need for developing other biocompatible materials. For example, the knowledge of previously mentioned virus, M13, led to the alignment of its phages into nanopillars for enhanced piezoelectric properties [ 45 ].
The outer hair cell is another structure that piezoelectric properties can be attributed to. The motions of the outer hair cell alter how the organ of Corti vibrates, and changes how the inner hairs receive stimulation [ 36 ]. Recently, the development of a piezoelectric cochlear implant to mimic the conversion of sound vibration into an electrical signal has been undertaken and will be covered in a later section of this review [ 47 ]. Biological structures can serve as examples for the development of piezoelectric structures and biocompatible piezoelectric materials.
In addition, the knowledge of piezoelectric properties can help in disease detection or injury analysis. With the knowledge that piezoelectric tissue properties are determined by proteins, diseases that affect the amount or distribution of these proteins can be detected by piezoelectric sensors.
One group proposed that the electromechanical coupling factor, controlled by collagen, could aid in detecting breast cancer [ 35 ]. In this paper, they claimed the PFM amplitude increased as a function of advancing atherosclerosis and could help with early detection of the disease.
Finally, once the effect of piezoelectricity on the body have been studied, piezoelectric materials can be used to promote disease healing. Though the exact reason for piezoelectric qualities have not been fully discovered, studies into bone related injuries have revealed that induced electrical fields can accelerate bone repair and promote the growth of neurons [ 49 , 50 ].
Because of this, increasing the piezoelectric properties of a synthetic bone material has potential to increase the speed of osteoconduction and subsequently bone repair [ 51 ]. Lead free ceramics can be used in conjunction with synthetic bone; however, these materials have problems with ion diffusion which can be controlled by embedding in a ceramic or polymer matrix [ 50 ].
In terms of regenerating damaged bone or cartilage, a piezoelectric scaffold may provide the necessary stimulation for cell regrowth, and diminish the need for other growth factors [ 43 ]. Typically, scaffolds are made out of polymers, such as PVDF, and can also promote the growth of neurons and wound healing [ 50 ]. Many biomedical piezoelectric applications exceed the aforementioned purposes of mimicking or employing biological piezoelectric phenomena.
In some cases, the choice of material depends mostly on the strength of the piezoelectric effect and the cost of the material. PZT lead zirconium titanate and quartz are common piezoelectric materials used in industry. PZT is cheaper, has higher piezoelectric coupling coefficients, and can be manipulated by changing the composition. Quartz, however, is more stable and has consistent properties over a broader temperature range [ 4 ].
Developing implants or technology involving direct human contact has more constraints. Ceramics, like quartz, barium titanate, and potassium sodium niobate, are more biocompatible because they do not contain lead [ 50 ].
In addition, many biomedical devices require higher flexibility than ceramics can provide, due to the dynamic nature of human motion. Biocompatible polymers include most biological materials and PVDF copolymers. So far, polymer applications of PVDF have included, but are not limited to, biomechanical energy harvesting systems, sensors, and wound scaffolds [ 50 , 52 ]. Piezoelectric materials can be employed in monitoring many bodily signals because they convert mechanical energy into an electrical signal.
They are especially applicable to monitoring dynamic pressure changes; many human vital signs consist of rhythmic activities like the heartbeat or breathing. In the higher end of that range are intraocular pressure and cranial pressure. Piezoelectric sensors can be tailored by structure or material to match the pressure range of the desired quality [ 54 ].
Implanted or wearable medical sensors have greater applicability, as the Internet of Things becomes more fully developed. A medical professional or computer algorithm can monitor a patient for early warning signs that may have been missed between scheduled check-ups through their implanted device [ 55 ].
Table 2 lists some literature studies of piezoelectric sensors and their tested applications. The variety of applications for piezoelectric sensors in the biomedical industry is promising, however much of this technology is still in the research and development phase. Before reaching the market, these devices need to have scalable manufacturing and guaranteed quality for every device [ 52 ]. A specific application for piezoelectric pressure sensing is synthetic skin.
As a bare minimum, synthetic skin should provide the magnitude of contact force and approximate location of contact with the sensitivity of normal skin [ 53 ]. Ideally, it would also provide information about temperature changes or humidity [ 68 ]. Human skin itself acts as a vibrational sensor; it is structured to amplify tactile stimulation [ 69 ]. Piezoelectric force transducers offer a solution to quantifying and locating contact forces [ 53 ].
Piezoelectric Materials for Medical Applications
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Abstract Piezoelectric materials are capable of transforming mechanical strain and vibration energy into electrical energy. This property allows opportunities for implementing renewable and sustainable energy through power harvesting and self-sustained smart sensing in buildings. As the most common construction material, plain cement paste lacks satisfactory piezoelectricity and is not efficient at harvesting the electrical energy from the ambient vibrations of a building system.
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The Effects of Piezoelectricity Smart Material
Piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems PiezoMEMS are attractive for developing next generation self-powered microsystems. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in microscale piezoelectric energy harvesting, summarizing key metrics such as power density and bandwidth of reported structures at low frequency input. This paper also describes the recent advancements in piezoelectric materials and resonator structures.
This chapter describes the history and development strategy of piezoelectric materials for medical applications. It covers the piezoelectric properties of materials found inside the human body including blood vessels, skin, and bones as well as how the piezoelectricity innate in those materials aids in disease treatment. It also covers piezoelectric materials and their use in medical implants by explaining how piezoelectric materials can be used as sensors and can emulate natural materials. Finally, the possibility of using piezoelectric materials to design medical equipment and how current models can be improved by further research is explored. This review is intended to provide greater understanding of how important piezoelectricity is to the medical industry by describing the challenges and opportunities regarding its future development.
Einstein notation is used, where repeated indices are summed. Because piezoelectricity is a third-rank tensor property, a good starting point to understanding the crystal chemistry of piezoelectric materials is to consider the impact of symmetry on such a property. As shown in Fig. Odd-rank tensor properties are symmetry forbidden in centrosymmetric structures, making piezoelectricity a null property for such materials.
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