American Culture And History PdfBy Katharina B. In and pdf 09.05.2021 at 09:59 6 min read
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Hughes wrote the poem while riding a train from New York City to Ohio and reflecting on his life as a struggling writer during the Great Depression. In the poem, Hughes describes his own disillusionment with the American Dream and suggests that the United States has failed to fulfill its promise of freedom and equality for all people.
Ap World History Chapter 7 Commerce And Culture Pdf
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble a society's majority group or assume the values, behaviors, and beliefs of another group. Cultural assimilation may involve either a quick or a gradual change depending on the circumstances of the group. Full assimilation occurs when members of a society become indistinguishable from those of the dominant group [ clarify ].
Whether a given group should assimilate is often disputed by both members of the group and others in society. Cultural assimilation does not guarantee social alikeness. Geographical and other natural barriers between cultures, even if created by the predominant culture, may be culturally different. Various types of assimilation, including forced cultural assimilation, is particularly relevant in regards to Indigenous groups during colonialism taking place between the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.
This type of assimilation included religious conversion, separation of families, changes of gender roles, division of property among foreign power, elimination of local economies and lack of sustainable food supply. Whether via colonialism or within one nation, methods of forced assimilation are often unsustainable, leading to revolts and collapses of power to maintain control over cultural norms.
Often, cultures that are forced into different cultural practices through forced cultural assimilation will revert to their native practices, and religions that differ from the forced cultural values from other dominant powers.
In addition throughout history, voluntary assimilation is often in response to pressure from a more predominant culture, and conformity is a solution for people to remain in safety. An example of voluntary cultural assimilation would be during the Spanish Inquisition when Jews and Muslims accepted the Roman Catholic Church as their religion, meanwhile, in private, many people still practised their traditional religions. This type of assimilation is used to convince a dominant power that a culture has peacefully assimilated yet often voluntary assimilation does not mean the group fully conforms to the accepted cultural beliefs.
The term "assimilation" is often used with regard to not only Indigenous groups but also immigrants settled in a new land. A new culture and new attitudes toward the origin culture are obtained through contact and communication. Assimilation assumes that a relatively-tenuous culture gets to be united to one unified culture. That process happens by contact and accommodation between each culture. The current definition of assimilation is usually used to refer to immigrants, but in multiculturalism , cultural assimilation can happen all over the world and within varying social contexts and is not limited to specific areas.
Legislation applying the policy of "protection" over Aboriginal Australians separating them from white society  was adopted in some states and territories of Australia when they were still colonies, before the federation of Australia : in the Victoria in , Western Australia in , and Queensland in After federation, New South Wales crafted their policy in , South Australia and the Northern Territory which was under the control and of South Australia at the time in Mission stations missions and Government-run Aboriginal reserves were created, and Aboriginal people moved onto them.
Legislation restricted their movement, prohibited alcohol use and regulated employment. The policies were reinforced in the first half of the 20th century when it was realised that Aboriginal people would not die out or be fully absorbed in white society  such as in the provisions of the Welfare Ordinance , in which Aboriginal people were made wards of the state.
Indigenous people were regarded as inferior to white people by these policies, and often experienced discrimination in the predominantly white towns after having to move to seek work. Between and , several generations of Indigenous children were removed from their parents, and have become known as the Stolen Generations. The policy has done lasting damage to individuals, family and Indigenous culture.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, and continuing until , when the Canadian Indian residential school was closed, the Canadian government, aided by Christian Churches began a campaign to forcibly assimilate Indigenous peoples in Canada. The government consolidated power over Indigenous land through treaties and the use of force, eventually isolating most Indigenous peoples to reserves.
Marriage practices and spiritual ceremonies were banned, and spiritual leaders were imprisoned. Additionally, the Canadian government instituted an extensive residential school system to assimilate children. Indigenous children were separated from their families and no longer permitted to express their culture at these new schools. They were not allowed to speak their language or practise their own traditions without receiving punishment. There were many cases in which violent or sexual abuse by the Christian church was committed.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada concluded that this effort amounted to cultural genocide. The schools actively worked to alienate children from their cultural roots.
Students were prohibited from speaking their native languages, were regularly abused, and were arranged marriages by the government after their graduation. The explicit goal of the Canadian government, through the Catholic and Anglican churches, was to completely assimilate Indigenous peoples into broader Canadian society and destroy all traces of their native history. He argued that those territories have very tiny isolated populations and proposed to integrate them into the larger Brazilian society.
A major contributor to cultural assimilation in South America began during exploration and colonialism that often is thought [ by whom? Through forced cultural assimilation, colonial powers such as Spain used methods of violence to assert cultural dominance over Indigenous populations.
This demonstrates that forced cultural assimilation is not long-term or fully effective on different cultures such as the Indigenous peoples in Latin America. In the course of the colonisation of New Zealand from the lateth century onwards, assimilation of the Indigenous Maori population to the culture of incoming European visitors and settlers at first occurred spontaneously. Genetic assimilation commenced early and continued - the New Zealand census classified only Linguistic assimilation also occurred early and ongoingly: European settler populations adopted and adapted Maori words , while European languages affected Maori vocabulary and possibly phonology.
In the 19th century colonial administrations de facto encouraged assimilation;  by the lateth century policies favored supporting bicultural development. Imported ideas — such as writing,  Christianity,  monarchy , sectarianism , everyday European-style clothing,  or disapproval of slavery  — spread more slowly.
Later developments socialism,  anti-colonialist theory,  New Age ideas  have proven more internationally mobile. One long-standing view presents Maori communalism as unassimilated with European-style individualism. Social scientists rely on four primary benchmarks to assess immigrant assimilation: socioeconomic status , geographic distribution, second language attainment, and intermarriage.
Clark defines immigrant assimilation in the United States as "a way of understanding the social dynamics of American society and that it is the process that occurs spontaneously and often unintended in the course of interaction between majority and minority groups.
Studies have also noted the positive effects of immigrant assimilation. A study by Bleakley and Chin found that people who arrived at or before the age of nine from non-English speaking countries tend to speak English at a similar level as those from English speaking countries. Conversely, those who arrived after nine from non- English speaking countries have much lower speaking proficiency and this increases linearly with age at arrival. The study also noted sociocultural impacts such as those with better English skills are less likely to be currently married, more likely to divorce, have fewer children, and have spouses closer to their age.
A study done by Verkuyten found that immigrant children who adapt through integration or assimilation are received more positively by their peers than those who adapt through marginalization or separation.
There has been little to no existing research or evidence that demonstrates whether and how immigrant's mobility gains—assimilating to a dominant country such as language ability, socioeconomic status etc. This essential type of research provides information on how immigrants are accepted into dominant countries. In an article by Ariela Schachter, titled "From "different" to "similar": an experimental approach to understanding assimilation", a survey was taken of white American citizens to view their perception of immigrants who now resided in the United States.
White natives are open to having "structural" relation with the immigrants-origin individuals, for instance, friends and neighbours; however, this was with the exception of black immigrants and natives and undocumented immigrants.
A similar journal by Jens Hainmueller and Daniel J. Asking a population-based sample of U. S citizens to decide between pairs of immigrants applying for admission to the United States, the U. S citizen would see an application with information for two immigrants including notes about their education status, country, origin, and other attributes. The results showed Americans viewed educated immigrants in high-status jobs favourably, whereas they view the following groups unfavourably: those who lack plans to work, those who entered without authorization, those who do are not fluent in English and those of Iraqi descent.
As the number of international students entering the US has increased, so has the number of international students in US colleges and universities. The adaption of these newcomers is important in cross-cultural research.
In the study "Cross-Cultural Adaptation of International College Student in the United States" by Yikang Wang, the goal was to examine how the psychological and socio-cultural adaption of international college students varied over time. The two subtypes of adaption: psychological and socio-cultural were examined. Psychological adaption refers to "feelings of well-being or satisfaction during cross-cultural transitions;"  while socio-cultural refers to the ability to fit into the new culture.
Psychological adaption had the most significant change for a student who has resided in the US for at least 24 months while socio-cultural adaption steadily increased over time. It can be concluded that eventually over time, the minority group will shed some of their culture's characteristic when in a new country and incorporate new culture qualities. Also, it was confirmed that the more time spent in a new country would result in becoming more accustomed to the dominate countries aspects of characteristics.
Figure 2 demonstrates as the length of time resided in the United States increase—the dominant country, the life satisfaction and socio-cultural skill increase as well—positive correlation. The journal included a study that examined a "direct measure of assimilation with a host culture and immigrants' subjective well-being. Life satisfaction rates were higher for those who had assimilated to the dominant country than those who had not assimilated since those who did incorporate the dominant language, religion, psychological aspects, etc.
One's willingness to assimilate is, surprisingly, not only based solely on their decision to adopt but other factors as well, such as how they are introduced to the dominant country. The results show negative intercultural sensitivity is much greater in participants who experience "culture shock". Also, for one who has travelled to the country before permanently moving, they would have predetermined beliefs about the culture and their status within the country.
The emotional expression for this individual includes excitement, happiness, eagerness, and euphoria. This article addresses each theme, pre-travel, culture shock, negative cultural sensitivity and positive cultural sensitivity, their perception, emotional expression and responses, their gender, and the interpretation for the responses.
The data collected were narratives from the students that focused on variables such as "cultural similarity, intercultural communication competence, intercultural friendship, and relational identity to influence their experiences. Jules, one of the students, stated "It's just the small things that bother me a lot. For example, if people are just walking on the floor with their shoes and then just lying on the bed with their shoes. It bothers me a lot because that's not part of my culture.
I found a few things as a culture shock. And I mean this was one of those things. The way people speak was different. To me - so which I found it was quite interesting because we Chinese we don't do that, like when you stop someone and if you talk to strangers to China it can be considered that you want something from me - yeah.
Yes, it is a completely different experience. Between and , the United States took in roughly 24 million immigrants. The beginning of the 21st century has also marked a massive era of immigration, and sociologists are once again trying to make sense of the impacts that immigration has on society and on the immigrants themselves.
Assimilation had various meanings in American sociology. Henry Pratt Fairchild associates American assimilation with Americanization or the melting pot theory. Some scholars also believed that assimilation and acculturation were synonymous. According to a common point of view, assimilation is a "process of interpretation and fusion" from another group or person.
That may include memories, behaviours, and sentiments. By sharing their experiences and histories, they blend into the common cultural life. It describes the American situation wherein despite the cultural assimilation of ethnic groups to mainstream American society, they maintained structural separation.
The long history of immigration in the established gateways means that the place of immigrants in terms of class , racial , and ethnic hierarchies in the traditional gateways is more structured or established, but on the other hand, the new gateways do not have much immigration history and so the place of immigrants in terms of class, racial, and ethnic hierarchies are less defined, and immigrants may have more influence to define their position.
Journal of Cold War Studies
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble a society's majority group or assume the values, behaviors, and beliefs of another group. Cultural assimilation may involve either a quick or a gradual change depending on the circumstances of the group. Full assimilation occurs when members of a society become indistinguishable from those of the dominant group [ clarify ]. Whether a given group should assimilate is often disputed by both members of the group and others in society. Cultural assimilation does not guarantee social alikeness.
For example, a cultural psychologist examines how culture, in general, causes some people to be submissive, while it encourages others to be more aggressive. It will utterly ease you to see guide culture and psychology matsumoto 5th. A theory is a set of interrelated propositions or principles designed to answer a question or explain a particular phenomenon; it. Assuming no prior knowledge, this bestselling text takes you through every stage of your research project giving advice on planning and conducting studies, analysing data and writing. Buss Professor. The book won the William James Award from.
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Culture of Japan
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Japanese culture was influenced from ancient times to the Middle Ages primarily by multiple Chinese dynasties and to a lesser extent by other Asian countries. For example the Japanese language uses Chinese characters kanji for writing, but Japanese has no genetic relationship with Chinese. The inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of relative isolation from the outside world for over years during the Tokugawa shogunate until the arrival of the " Black Ships " and the Meiji period.
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Затем, с еще мокрыми волосами, угощал поверженного соперника орешками и соком. Как у всех молодых профессоров, университетское жалованье Дэвида было довольно скромным. Время от времени, когда надо было продлить членство в теннисном клубе или перетянуть старую фирменную ракетку, он подрабатывал переводами для правительственных учреждений в Вашингтоне и его окрестностях.
Беккер вежливо улыбнулся и вышел на улицу - в душную севильскую ночь. ГЛАВА 42 Вернувшись в комнату, Сьюзан, не находя себе места, нервно ходила из угла в угол, терзаясь мыслью о том, что так и не выбрала момент, чтобы разоблачить Хейла. А тот спокойно сидел за своим терминалом. - Стресс - это убийца, Сью.
Твое сокровище в беде, коммандер, - пробормотал. - Не веришь моей интуиции. Так я тебе докажу. ГЛАВА 20 Городская больница располагалась в здании бывшей начальной школы и нисколько не была похожа на больницу.
Меня зовут Северная Дакота. Нуматака подавил смешок. Все знали про Северную Дакоту.
Беккер почувствовал, как кровь отхлынула от его лица. - Куда.
Он даже представить себе не может, насколько хуже. Не в силах сдержать нетерпение, Беккер попытался позвонить снова, но по-прежнему безрезультатно. Больше ждать он не мог: глаза горели огнем, нужно было промыть их водой. Стратмор подождет минуту-другую.
Наверняка, - объявил Бринкерхофф. Фонтейн молча обдумывал информацию. - Не знаю, ключ ли это, - сказал Джабба. - Мне кажется маловероятным, что Танкадо использовал непроизвольный набор знаков. - Выбросьте пробелы и наберите ключ! - не сдержался Бринкерхофф.
Если Стратмор окажется на грани срыва, директор заметит первые симптомы. Но вместо признаков срыва Фонтейн обнаружил подготовительную работу над беспрецедентной разведывательной операцией, которую только можно было себе представить. Неудивительно, что Стратмор просиживает штаны на работе. Если он сумеет реализовать свой замысел, это стократно компенсирует провал Попрыгунчика. Фонтейн пришел к выводу, что Стратмор в полном порядке, что он трудится на сто десять процентов, все так же хитер, умен и в высшей степени лоялен, впрочем - как .
Отправилась в аэропорт несколько часов. Самое место, где толкнуть колечко: богатые туристы и все такое прочее. Как только получит денежки, так и улетит.
То, что там происходит, серьезно, очень серьезно. Мои данные еще никогда меня не подводили и не подведут. - Она собиралась уже положить трубку, но, вспомнив, добавила: - Да, Джабба… ты говоришь, никаких сюрпризов, так вот: Стратмор обошел систему Сквозь строй. ГЛАВА 100 Халохот бежал по лестнице Гиральды, перепрыгивая через две ступеньки.
Keine Rotkopfe, простите. - Женщина положила трубку. Вторая попытка также ни к чему не привела. Беккер заглянул в телефонный справочник. Оставался последний номер.
Моя смена от семи до семи, - кивнула женщина. - Тогда вы наверняка ее видели. Это совсем молоденькая девушка. Лет пятнадцати-шестнадцати. Волосы… - Не успев договорить, он понял, что совершил ошибку.
Он был потрясен.