# Using Narrative In Social Research Qualitative And Quantitative Approaches Pdf

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- Principles of Sociological Inquiry – Qualitative and Quantitative Methods
- Qualitative research
- An introduction to qualitative research

*Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon.*

## Principles of Sociological Inquiry – Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon.

Babbie, Earl R. The Practice of Social Research. Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population.

Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment]. A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality. Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Quantitative research focuses on numeric and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i.

Its main characteristics are :. The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed.

Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods :. Armonk, NY: M. Sharpe, ; Quantitative Research Methods. Writing CSU. Colorado State University; Singh, Kultar. Quantitative Social Research Methods. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, Before designing a quantitative research study, you must decide whether it will be descriptive or experimental because this will dictate how you gather, analyze, and interpret the results.

A descriptive study is governed by the following rules: subjects are generally measured once; the intention is to only establish associations between variables; and, the study may include a sample population of hundreds or thousands of subjects to ensure that a valid estimate of a generalized relationship between variables has been obtained.

An experimental design includes subjects measured before and after a particular treatment, the sample population may be very small and purposefully chosen, and it is intended to establish causality between variables. Introduction The introduction to a quantitative study is usually written in the present tense and from the third person point of view.

It covers the following information:. Methodology The methods section of a quantitative study should describe how each objective of your study will be achieved. Be sure to provide enough detail to enable the reader can make an informed assessment of the methods being used to obtain results associated with the research problem. The methods section should be presented in the past tense. Results The finding of your study should be written objectively and in a succinct and precise format. In quantitative studies, it is common to use graphs, tables, charts, and other non-textual elements to help the reader understand the data.

Make sure that non-textual elements do not stand in isolation from the text but are being used to supplement the overall description of the results and to help clarify key points being made. Further information about how to effectively present data using charts and graphs can be found here. Discussion Discussions should be analytic, logical, and comprehensive. The discussion should meld together your findings in relation to those identified in the literature review, and placed within the context of the theoretical framework underpinning the study.

The discussion should be presented in the present tense. Conclusion End your study by to summarizing the topic and provide a final comment and assessment of the study. Black, Thomas R. London: Sage, ; Gay,L. Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. Bates College; Nenty, H. Basic Inquiry of Quantitative Research. Kennesaw State University. Quantitative researchers try to recognize and isolate specific variables contained within the study framework, seek correlation, relationships and causality, and attempt to control the environment in which the data is collected to avoid the risk of variables, other than the one being studied, accounting for the relationships identified.

Among the specific strengths of using quantitative methods to study social science research problems:. Sharpe, ; Singh, Kultar. Quantitative methods presume to have an objective approach to studying research problems, where data is controlled and measured, to address the accumulation of facts, and to determine the causes of behavior.

As a consequence, the results of quantitative research may be statistically significant but are often humanly insignificant. Some specific limitations associated with using quantitative methods to study research problems in the social sciences include:.

SAGE publications is a major publisher of studies about how to design and conduct research in the social and behavioral sciences. The database also includes case studies outlining the research methods used in real research projects. This is an excellent source for finding definitions of key terms and descriptions of research design and practice, techniques of data gathering, analysis, and reporting, and information about theories of research [e. The database covers both qualitative and quantitative research methods as well as mixed methods approaches to conducting research.

Search this Guide Search. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. The Abstract Executive Summary 4. The Introduction The C. The Discussion Limitations of the Study 9. The Conclusion Appendices Definition Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques.

Characteristics of Quantitative Research Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population.

Its main characteristics are : The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population. The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability.

Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other non-textual forms. Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships.

Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data. Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods : Explain the data collected and their statistical treatment as well as all relevant results in relation to the research problem you are investigating.

Interpretation of results is not appropriate in this section. Report unanticipated events that occurred during your data collection. Explain how the actual analysis differs from the planned analysis. Explain your handling of missing data and why any missing data does not undermine the validity of your analysis. Explain the techniques you used to "clean" your data set.

Choose a minimally sufficient statistical procedure ; provide a rationale for its use and a reference for it. Specify any computer programs used. Describe the assumptions for each procedure and the steps you took to ensure that they were not violated.

When using inferential statistics , provide the descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, and sample sizes for each variable as well as the value of the test statistic, its direction, the degrees of freedom, and the significance level [report the actual p value].

Avoid inferring causality , particularly in nonrandomized designs or without further experimentation. Use tables to provide exact values ; use figures to convey global effects. Keep figures small in size; include graphic representations of confidence intervals whenever possible. Always tell the reader what to look for in tables and figures. Basic Research Design for Quantitative Studies Before designing a quantitative research study, you must decide whether it will be descriptive or experimental because this will dictate how you gather, analyze, and interpret the results.

It covers the following information: Identifies the research problem -- as with any academic study, you must state clearly and concisely the research problem being investigated. Reviews the literature -- review scholarship on the topic, synthesizing key themes and, if necessary, noting studies that have used similar methods of inquiry and analysis.

Note where key gaps exist and how your study helps to fill these gaps or clarifies existing knowledge. Describes the theoretical framework -- provide an outline of the theory or hypothesis underpinning your study. If necessary, define unfamiliar or complex terms, concepts, or ideas and provide the appropriate background information to place the research problem in proper context [e.

Study population and sampling -- where did the data come from; how robust is it; note where gaps exist or what was excluded. Note the procedures used for their selection; Data collection — describe the tools and methods used to collect information and identify the variables being measured; describe the methods used to obtain the data; and, note if the data was pre-existing [i. If you gathered it yourself, describe what type of instrument you used and why.

Note that no data set is perfect--describe any limitations in methods of gathering data. Data analysis -- describe the procedures for processing and analyzing the data. If appropriate, describe the specific instruments of analysis used to study each research objective, including mathematical techniques and the type of computer software used to manipulate the data.

Statistical analysis -- how did you analyze the data? What were the key findings from the data? The findings should be present in a logical, sequential order. Describe but do not interpret these trends or negative results; save that for the discussion section. The results should be presented in the past tense. Interpretation of results -- reiterate the research problem being investigated and compare and contrast the findings with the research questions underlying the study.

Did they affirm predicted outcomes or did the data refute it?

## Qualitative research

See our resources page for information, support and best practices. Due to the current restrictions in place, our inspection copy policy has changed. It will become a milestone in the development of narrative methods. Although ground-breaking in many ways, it is very clearly written and accessible to readers from a wide variety of backgrounds and methodological experience' - Nigel Gilbert, University of Surrey. Jane Elliott shows a sophisticated appreciation of contemporary methodological developments, and makes a persuasive case for the use of narrative approaches in both qualitative and quantitative research.

Book Review: Using Narrative in Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches · 19+ million members · + million publications.

## An introduction to qualitative research

Theories structure and inform sociological research. So, too, does research structure and inform theory. The reciprocal relationship between theory and research often becomes evident to students new to these topics when they consider the relationships between theory and research in inductive and deductive approaches to research.

Numbers and per-. In qualitative research, your main concern is not the story itself but the meaning of the story. Stem cell research is ongoing at universities, research institutions, and hospitals around the world. A qualitative research design is probably the most flexible of the various experimental techniques,. As with any research, you need to spend time working out exactly what it is you want to know, and create a research question that provides a tight focus for your data collection.

However, some consider this process, not quite environmentally friendly due to the generation of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and carbon. As the s came to a close, military aircraft manufacturers in the United States faced a disturbing problem. It is appreciated if credit is given when these materials are reproduced or published in any way. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion such as psychological manipulation.

*Published on June 19, by Pritha Bhandari. Revised on July 30, Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data e.*

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Qualitative research relies on data obtained by the researcher from first-hand observation, interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, participant-observation, recordings made in natural settings, documents, and artifacts. The data are generally nonnumerical. Qualitative methods include ethnography , grounded theory , discourse analysis , and interpretative phenomenological analysis.

The last chapter introduced interpretive research, or more specifically, interpretive case research. This chapter will explore other kinds of interpretive research. Recall that positivist or deductive methods, such as laboratory experiments and survey research, are those that are specifically intended for theory or hypotheses testing, while interpretive or inductive methods, such as action research and ethnography, are intended for theory building. Unlike a positivist method, where the researcher starts with a theory and tests theoretical postulates using empirical data, in interpretive methods, the researcher starts with data and tries to derive a theory about the phenomenon of interest from the observed data. Interpretive research is a research paradigm see Chapter 3 that is based on the assumption that social reality is not singular or objective, but is rather shaped by human experiences and social contexts ontology , and is therefore best studied within its socio-historic context by reconciling the subjective interpretations of its various participants epistemology.

Scientific literature review articles are methodological studies which use database searches to retrieve results of research, and have as their mail goal the objective and theoretical discussion of a specific topic or theme. Two main types of review articles are commonly found in the scientific literature: Systematic and narrative review of the literature. These two types of review articles have distinct characteristics and goals.

* - На это уйдет полчаса.*

Беккер понимающе кивнул, но ему хотелось знать. Используя вместо классной доски салфетки ресторана Мерлутти или концертные программы, Сьюзан дала этому популярному и очень привлекательному преподавателю первые уроки криптографии. Она начала с совершенного квадрата Юлия Цезаря. Цезарь, объясняла она, был первым в истории человеком, использовавшим шифр.

С учетом обстоятельств, я полагаю, - сказала Сьюзан, - вам все же нужно позвонить директору. Стратмор покачал головой, и капля пота с его лба упала на стол. - Я не хочу никоим образом нарушать покой директора и говорить с ним о кризисе, в то время как он не в состоянии предпринять хоть что-нибудь. Сьюзан понимала, что коммандер прав.

*В некотором отдалении от него возникла фигура человека, приближавшегося медленно и неотвратимо. В руке его поблескивал пистолет. Беккер, отступая к стене, вновь обрел способность мыслить четко и ясно.*